ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

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India’s Development

No Indian Prime Minister has ridiculed their predecessors as the current incumbent, Narendra Modi, has. Speaking at recent election rallies and elsewhere, Modi claimed that there was no development in the country during the last 70 years except for “some” development during Atal Bihari Vajpayee’s...

Corruption in Karnataka

Your editorial entitled “Karnataka’s Landmine” (EPW, 6 August 2011) hit the bull’s eye and as rightly stated by you “What the report (Lok Ayuktha’s report on the corruption indulged in by the BJP government and Yeddyurappa, his family and his associates) has really done is to destroy the...

Oilseeds Development and Policy-A Review

This article attempts to re view the past performance of the Indian oilseeds sector and assesses the emerging scenario and various policy options for the sustained growth of this sector.

Poverty and Income Distribution in India

K N Ninan Against the background of global poverty and income distribution pattern, this paper analyses the trends and causal factors behind rural poverty in India both at the national and state levels during 1957-58 to 1986-87. Adopting an alternate model and categorisation of the time period of analysis into two phases which is empirically and theoretically justified the paper observes that contrary to the findings of other researchers, not only are there distinct time trends in the incidence of rural poverty in India, but also while these trends were positive and significant in Period I (1957-58 to 1968-69), they were negative and significant in Period II (1969-70 to 1986-87). Also, the rate of decline in the incidence of rural poverty in the latter period was much higher than the rate of increase in rural poverty in the preceding period. These observations are valid for both all-India and across states, using alternate measures of poverty, i e, the head count ratio and Sen's poverty index. The paper then attempts both a time series and cross-section analysis of the causal factors behind rural poverty in India, especially probing into the role of agricultural growth, inflation, access to subsidised food through the public distribution system, population pressure on environmental resources, rural consumption levels and inequality, and infrastructure development on the incidence of rural poverty for all-India and across states.

Green Revolution, Dryland Agriculture and Sustainability-Insights from India

Against the background of the green revolution and dryland agriculture, this paper analyses the growth experience of Indian agriculture and its implications for growth, equity and sustainability. It examines the association between growth and instability and factors behind yield instability using cropwise and disaggregated time series data. It then analyses the cost economics of Indian agriculture covering several crops and regions. This is followed by an impact assessment of watershed development programmes on dryland development in India.

Economics of Shifting Cultivation in India

K N Ninan This paper analyses the economics of shifting (or 'jhum') cultivation vis-a-vis settled (terrace) cultivation in north-east India, with the help of micro-level data and information available in the studies conducted by some agro-economic research centres. The study indicates that settled (terrace) cultivation is not as remunerative as shifting cultivation.

Self-Sufficiency in Oilseeds-Within Grasp or Elusive Goal

Within Grasp or Elusive Goal? K N Ninan This paper examines the prospects of India realising her goal of self-sufficiency in oilseeds, in the light of the optimistic crop outlook for oilseeds in 1988-89. While analysing the various policy options for India to become selfreliant in this crucial sector, it suggests that the main constraint for increasing oilseeds production in India is technology It cautions against a strategy of laying sole emphasis on the price mechanism which can only be at the cost of coarse cereals, the main competitors of oilseeds and which are mostly consumed by people with low incomes.

Small Farmers and Commodity Market-An Analysis of Market Participation and Price Discrimination

This paper analyses the marketing activities of small farmers in relation to other classes of farmers with the help of farm-level data in Kerala. The nature and extent of participation by small farmers in the commodity market as sellers and also other related issues like the question of distress sales are the focus of analysis. There is an attempt to find whether there is price bias in favour of any particular class of farmers who come to the market to sell their produce and whether these price advantages/disadvantages are specific to particular crops or choice of market outlets. The study finds no conclusive evidence to support the view that small farmers are paid less for their produce than those offered to big farmers or that there is any conscious and deliberate attempt at price discrimination against them in the commodity market. It further notes that price differentials across size-classes were smaller when the market outlet was a co-operative as against an agent.

Edible Oilseeds-Growth and Area Responses

Growth and Area Responses K N Ninan India enjoys the distinction of having the largest cultivated area under oilseeds in the world. Yet the consumption levels of a crucial nutrient like oils and fats in the country are not only below the world average but also far below the minimum nutritional requirements prescribed by the ICMR. The domestic demand for vegetable oils and fats has been rising at a very fast pace whereas domestic output has lagged far behind the growth in demand, forcing the government to resort to large-scale imports of edible oils to bridge this shortfall. Making the country self-sufficient in its edible oil requirements has therefore been accorded priority in our development plans.

Labour Use in Agriculture-Case Studies of Tapioca and Paddy

Case Studies of Tapioca and Paddy K N Ninan The experience of the developed countries suggests that economic growth coincided with a shift of a significant proportion of the labour force from the agriculture to the non-agricultural sector The sluggish pace of growth of industrial employment coupled with high population growth rates in less developed countries has made it clear that for quite some time agriculture will have to continue to provide employment to many in LDCs The present paper discusses selected issues relating to labour use in agriculture, focusing specifically on tapioca and paddy crops which are extensively cultivated in the developing countries, with the help of farm level data pertaining to Kerala. In particular it examines the relationship between labour use on the one hand and yields, farm-size, crop-operations on the other; and also the question of labour productivity in agriculture.

Agricultural Labourers and Poverty

Agricultural Labourers and Poverty K N Ninan JOAN MENCHER'S remarks (January 2-9) in response to my comments (September 19, 1981) on her article "Lessons and Non-Lessons of Kerala: Agricultural Labourers and Poverty" She accuses me of being oblivious of the context in which she wrote her paper, No, certainly I am not. But in the process of countering the praise showered on the Kerala model of development by Gwatkin and company, .Mencher swings the pendulum to the other extreme. Mencher charges me with hot having produced a single fact to warrant my less pessimistic assessment of the Kerala situation. In other words, we arc to accept her view that the situation of Kerala agricultural labourers has not only not improved, but has actually deteriorated considerably. To answer this as well as some of her other observations, let us discuss the following:

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