ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

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Lease Farming in Kerala

The Land Reforms Act in Kerala rendered tenancy invalid and prohibited the creation of future tenancies in the state. But tenancy still exists. It is a consequence of the simultaneous increase in two categories of people, ?those who have land but are unable to cultivate? and ?those who have the labour and skills, but have no lands or not enough lands of their own to cultivate?. This paper examines some micro level studies on tenancy in Kerala, more specifically, its prevalence across locations and crops, characteristics of lessors and lessees, the terms of lease and the income derived from lease cultivation. It argues for institutionalised arrangements for the expansion of lease cultivation, rather than sterner measures to check it. Among other factors, large-scale entry of self-help groups into the lease market to take up lease cultivation, often bringing hitherto fallow lands into production, prompts such a positioning.

Dynamics of Irrigation Institutions

Based on field work in a village panchayat in Kerala that analysed the complex issues concerning the development and working of irrigation institutions, the present study reveals that successful management of irrigation is contingent upon the level of participation of the water users in management. By comparing irrigation institutions under different property rights, the study identifies the significant factors that contribute to the success and sustainability of irrigation institutions. It is found that albeit the physical characteristics of irrigation systems and the heterogeneities of the members of the user groups do have an impact on the outcome, it is the institutional environment as reflected in the presence of clear as well as flexible systems of rules and regulations, enforcement mechanisms, nesting and networking of such institutions, etc, that have become the most crucial determinants.

Tenancy in the Context of Irrigation Uncertainty-Role of the Leading Input in Shaping Institutions

The authors' analysis of data collected from village surveys in Kanyakumari district in Tamil Nadu shows that both the incidence and form of tenancy are governed by the irrigation situation and the? changes in it. Irrigation uncertainty leads to a lower incidence of tenancy and the form itself changes in the direction of sharecropping. In understanding the terms of contract in the land market, a unified treatment of the land and labour markets is helpful But its application is limited to the case when the crop cultivated is a subsistence crop. Such unified treatment is not essential for the understanding of land contracts when the crop cultivated is a cash crop.

Dynamics of Land Distribution-An Alternative Approach and Analysis with Reference to Kerala

This paper attempts a general methodological critique of the conventional approach to the study of changes in land distribution. The analytical focus of the authors' alternative approach is on the pattern of inter-generational economic mobility of agricultural households as a proximate explanation for changes in land distribution.

Changing Livestock Economy

Changing Livestock Economy K N Nair Livestock Development in India: An Appraisal by S N Mishra and Rishi K Sharma; Vikas Publishing House, New Delhi, 1990; Rs 195.

Cattle Development in Kerala-Trends and Prospects

Trends and Prospects K N Nair In there pars between 1964-65 and 197879 Kerala witnessed a rapid increase in milk production which has been attributed to increased productivity of milch animals brought about through genetic improvements. This evaluation of the organised development of animal husbandry in the state, which commenced during the First Five-Year Plan, reviews the factors facilitating the spread of crosspreeding. The paper examines trends such as the extent of utilisation of artificial insemination services, changes in the composition of cattle population, contribu- tion of breed improvement to productivity of milch animals, demand for and returns from milk production and concludes with comments on the prospects for cattle development and milk production.

Operation Flood Re-Examined-Report of a Workshop

Operation Flood Re-Examined Report of a Workshop Martin Doornbos K N Nair A RESEARCH workshop on Operation Flood, based on a selection of the studies made on India's dairy development programme by a group of Indian and Dutch scholars working within the context of the Indo-Dutch Programme on Alternatives in Development (IDPAD), was hosted at the Centre for Development Studies, Trivandrum, from December 1-5, 1986. Some 16 papers as listed in the Appendix were presented and discussed at this workshop.

White Revolution in India Facts and Issues

K N Nair This paper highlights the trend and sources of growth of milk production in recent years and analyses the under- lying factors. It discusses the changes in the quantum and quality of feed supply, and the conversion efficiency of milch animal herd due to variations in species and breed composition and the role of Operation Flood Such an exercise, it is hoped, will provide some insights into some of the major constraints on increasing milk production in India against the background of the much debated Operation Flood strategy.
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