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Peasant Organisations in South India

Peasant Organisations in South India K C Alexander M S S PANDIAN {EPW, January 31) has raised certain issues on my paper 'Emergence of Peasant Organizations in South India' (EPW, June 28, 1980 Review of Agriculture).

Emergence of Peasant Organisations in South India

in South India K C Alexander This paper attempts to (i) examine the social background in which organisations of agricultural workers, tenants and farmers have emerged in Kerala and Tamil Nadu; (ii) give an account of the activities and achievements of these organisations; and (iii) assess the impact of their activities on agrarian social structure.

Genesis of Agrarian Tension in Thanjavur-Findings of a Research Study

unrest in different parts of India in the period that followed the 1967 General Election. According to a study conducted by the Research and Policy Division, Home Ministry, Government of India, on this subject in 1969, regular movements in the form of satya- grahas and forcible occupation of land were launched in the states of Assam, Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Gujarat, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Kar- nataka, Manipur, Orissa, Punjab, Rajas- than, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, and Uttar Pradesh.1 While in West Bengal, the unrest took the form of attempts by share-croppers for forcible occupation of the lands of jotedars, in Kerala it took the form of strikes by agricultural workers on the demand for enhanced wages. In Thanjavur district, Tamil Nadu, agricultural labourers were agi- taring for enhanced wages. In East and West Godavari districts of Andhra Pradesh also similar agitations were witnessed. 2 Conflicts between cultivators and agricultural labourers have been also reported from certain parts of Maharashtra3 and Gujarat.

Some Characteristics of the Agrarian Social Structure of Tamil Nadu

Some Characteristics of the Agrarian Social Structure of Tamil Nadu K C Alexander This paper examines certain characteristics of the agrarian social structure of Tamil Nadu, and attempts to explain the reasons for the emergence of these characteristics. These characteristics are the outcome of certain sociological forces which can be identified. The fact that among the four Dravi- dian linguistic states of South India, only the Tamil speaking people (except in Kanyakumari district) were not divided into different political entities, gave an extra force to these sociological elements in Tamil society, by facilitating greater geographical mobility of the people.

Central Organisations of Employers-Attitudes and Activities

Attitudes and Activities K C Alexander This paper examines the objectives, attitudes and activities of the two national employers* organisations, the Employers' Federation of India and the All-India Organisation of Employers, The two bodies organised pressure groups rather than service bodies. Their main purpose is to defend the interests of employers in various tripartite and bipartite committees in which they are represented as well as to take up issues directly with the government.

Emerging Farmer-Labour Relations in Kuttanad

The first democratically elected Communist government in India came to power in Kerala in 1957. Though this government was overthrown in 1969, a other communist-dominated leftist government came to power in the state in 1967, and since then coalition governments led by either the Communist Party of India (Marxist) (CPM) or the Communist Party of India (CPl) have been ruling the state. The emergence of communism as a major political force in Kerala is a manifestation of fundamental changes taking place in its social structure, This paper endeavours to describe the change that have occurred in the farmer-labour relations in Kuttanad, in the old princely state of Travancore, and to identify some of the factors which contributed to these changes. The changes in farmer-labour relation in Kuttanad may not be at the moment typical of the whole of Kerala, but this may be indicative of the pattern of relationship likely to emerge between these two important sections of the rural community in Kerala, and probably in other parts of India, in future.

Employers Organisations in India-Structure of Central Bodies

Structure of Central Bodies K C Alexander Employers' organisations in India broadly cluster around the Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FICCI) and the All-India Organisation of Employers (AlOE), on the one hand, and around the Associated Chambers of Commerce and Industry (ACCI) and the Employers' Federation of India (EFI), on the other. This paper attempts a description of the organisational structure of the two central organisations of employers, viz, AlOE and EFI The description shows that both these apex employers' organisations are not organised in a way as to render service to their members in the field of industrial relations. They do not have well organised secretariats or specialists. They are organised in such a way as only to elicit response from members to various measures taken by the government in the field of industrial relations, and to participate as the representatives of Indian employers in the various industrial relations bodies functioning at the national and international levels.

Business Associations

been cheaper to have a cistern providing water from the hill streams (p 34).
The author gives a detailed analysis of the financial position and income and expenditure pattern of the gram pan- chayats in these two blocks. In Narayan- patna the panchayats' income was miserably low and so were the grants from the government for development because "most of the schemes were executed directly by the authorities of the block" and only "a few were entrusted to the panchayats for execution" (p 22). This defeats the very purpose of local self-government. On the other hand, Runiban, being a special multipurpose tribal block, received more liberal grants. According to the author, the spread of Panchayati Raj in Ruruban has helped in weakening the political power of the feudal chiefs and the caste Hindus. It has made the tribals politically and socially conscious and has encouraged them to participate in political and social activities (p 77). Road development has also helped in increasing political and economic activity among the tribals of Ruruban, where school attendance has also increased significantly (p 95). On the other hand, Narayanpatna continues to experience a political vacuum "mainly because of the inaccessibility of these areas" (p 110).

Some Characteristics of Employers Organisations in India

Organisations in India K C Alexander Employers' organisations are represented in various public and private bodies operating at local, state, regional and national levels. Through these, they participate in the formulation of the commercial and industrial relations policies of the country.

Employers Organisations in India

Employers and their organisations are an important component of the industrial relations system of any modern society.
However, while labourers and their organisations have attracted wide attention, employers and their activities have failed to attract similar attention both from scholars mid laity alike.

Ethnography, Not Sociology

illustrative significance. To be useful, such a model at least has to have many more zones and sectors, apart from inter- regional equity considerations that so dominate our political life these days.

Changing Status of Pulaya Harijans of Kerala

The Putayas are the bottom rung of the caste hierarchy in Kerala. From being a source of pollu tion, they have, through education, greater economic independence, and through enactment of laws prohibit ing discrimination against them, attained a higher status in society.

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