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ANDHRA PRADESH- Murder of a Veteran Democrat

among the middle and small peasantry. Others in the state government like Vilasrao Deshmukh are new-comers to politics. By contrast Pawar has deep roots among the middle and small Maratha peasantry in Marathwada, western Maharashtra and certain districts of Vidarbha. A large number of his party's legislators have been elected to the state Assembly from rural constituencies.

Deaths in Police Custody Whom and Why Do the Police Kill

Deaths in Police Custody: Whom and Why Do the Police Kill? K Balagopal WHEN a person is beaten to death in police custody, the very event, even without the need of any propaganda, generates an image which retrospectively justifies it: the victim would not be beaten so badly if he/she were not a 'desperate' criminal or an otherwise dangerous individual. The police usually add their flourish to the image by describing as the victim's crimes all the charges they have written down in the FIR, some of them even perhaps as an afterthought necessitated by the very death. And when a scholar like Upendra Baxi ("The Crisis of the Indian Legal System") manages to arrive at the conclusion, unsupported by any evidence on exhibit, that custodial violence is used not invariably but rationally or 'judiciously' (a particularly inept choice of a description) by the police in the course of the investigation of crimes, the image acquires respectable solidity: it would not be a very judicious use of torture that beats to death a mere drunkard or pickpocket or prostitute, would it?

Deaths in Police Custody-Some Anatomical Considerations

Deaths in Police Custody Some Anatomical Considerations K Balagopal TO create a monster must be a fascinating experience, It is easy to imagine the thrill experienced by the gods of our puranas whose favourite sport it was to grant boons that made men into monsters and monsters into something worse. The thrill is in no way diminished by the occasional emergence of a Frankenstein's monster or a Bhasmasura out of this pastime. And even if one cannot create one, one can set free Nature's monsters and watch the fun: every child has enjoyed letting loose

ANDHRA PRADESH-Encounter Killings Aftermath of Supreme Court Judgment

market-rates inside jails. Two matchboxes bartered with a litre of milk!" comments Haque. BREEDING GROUND FOR CORRUPTION Whatever scope of being linked with productive labour was there in jails, Haque alleges, is diminishing. The prisoners used to grow some vegetables on jail plots to meet their daily requirements. Now the practice has been stopped. Other small-scale productions arc on the verge oi breaking down. "No supply; raw materials not available No fats. No wool. So yarn. But yes, the Left Front has increased the daily wage from six annas to one Rupee. How happy the prisoners are! Yet, if these inmates arc asked the government has fixed the minimum wage for eight hours labour at Rs 8.33. Why you, working for twelve hours, would not get even that rate? They reply

ANDHRA PRADESH-Reservations The Court Says No

ANDHRA PRADESH Reservations: The Court Says No K Balagopal IN a judgment delivered on September 5 a full bench of the AP High Court held that the State Government's GO enhancing the Backward Classes' (BC) quota of reservations in jobs and college seats from 25 to 44 per cent was unconstitutional; the judgment rang down the curtain on a nearly two-month long turmoil that had thrown everything out of gear in the state The entire 'public opinion' of the state heaved a rather shameless sigh of relief, and in case that was not audible enough, all the newspapers without exception wrote editorials stating in black and white that the state government had better not go to the Supreme Court in appeal against the judgment. It was plainly their unanimous wish that the whole thing be forgotten as a bad dream. But NTR was in no need of such advice. He hastened to thank the High Court for holding the GO only unconstitutional and not mala fide in its intentions as had been alleged, inter alia, by the petitioners; deduced the happy corollary that his government would not have to resign (for mere unconstitutionality of its acts, if such it is, is no ground for resignation of a government); and promised the increasingly strident anti-reservationists that he would not appeal to the Supreme Court but would abide silently by the High Court's judgment. He invited them for talks immediately after the judgment was delivered, and it was only after he promised with an uncharacteristic humility to behave himself that the anti-reservationists called off their agitation and walked out in jubilation into the streets littered with the broken glass panes of the buses stoned by them during the last six weeks.

ANDHRA PRADESH- Anti-Reservation, Yet Once More

ANDHRA PRADESH Anti-Reservation, Yet Once More K Balagopal SOUNDS of the future are sending their echoes backwards. As one reads the posters and listens to the arguments one is filled with an indistinct sense of unease, a premonition of the scenes that are going to trample along the streets of this land twenty, thirty or forty years hence; a prescience that is more akin to a feeling of deja vu in reversed time.

Agrarian Struggles

Agrarian Struggles K Balagopal Agrarian Struggles in India after Independence edited by A R Desai; Oxford University Press, Bombay, 1986; THE last two decades of theoretical research and political practice have led to the realisation that there is nothing in the world as fascinating as the agrarian history and politics of India. The history defies summarisation and the politics defies an easy consummation. Just as many more tons of paper and ink will undoubtedly be expended before we get a clear picture of India's agrarian history, much more struggle, sacrifice and suffering will be undergone before its blood-stained pages reach their finis.

ANDHRA PRADESH- Incarceration of S A Rauf Right to Life vs Security of State

higher. However, it is an open secret today that there are any number of methods of circumventing these regulations. Are the checks on kit imports then really comprehensive enough to ensure an adequate absorption of design and development know-how in the country? Secondly, are they of a nature that would provide adequate incentive for domestic manufacturers to gear up and start producing state-of-the-art electronic components?

ANDHRA PRADESH-Drought Lies the Government Tells

ANDHRA PRADESH Drought: Lies the Government Tells K Balagopal 'WHERE have all our cattle gone?' It is not a farmer who asks the question, for the farmers know quite well where their cattle have gone. It is the collector of Anantapur district who addresses the question, and the joint-director of the department of Animal Husbandry. It is unlikely that either of them

ANDHRA PRADESH-Rayalaseema Waiting for a Rshyasrnga

ANDHRA PRADESH Rayalaseema: Waiting for a Rshyasrnga K Balagopal 'ROADS indicate culture' says a doubtful maxim inscribed by the Public Works Department on a roadside stone slab in Anantapur district. But though 'culture' is not precisely what is indicated, the epigram is perhaps unintendedly apt; for the road in question goes on to Bellary in Karnataka, and it is to the canal-irrigated lands of Bellary that thousands of indigent labourers from Anantapur have trudged" along this very road in search of work and sustenance. The cotton-growing black soil of Bellary under the Tlingabhadra project, colonised by enterprising Kamma cultivators from coastal Andhra, is the nearest thing to Promised Land for poor and landless peasants of drought-ravaged Rayalaseema. No matter that the very exodus has brought down the wage rate for picking cotton from Rs 10 to 5 and even 3 per day, they trudge on nevertheless, for this Promised Land has promised them not Paradise, but just one meal every day, which is three times what they can get in their villages.

Encounters and the Supreme Court

case to political strategic perceptions that are guiding the policies of the Defence Ministry. It sets out a wider approach than a strictly professional-military one. Some striking postulates presented in the report deserve close attention.

Waiting and Waging

Waiting and Waging K Balagopal India Waits by Jan Myrdal; Sangam Books, distributed by Orient Longman; JAN MYRDAL, he tells us in the Preface, came in 1958 to 'do a book on India'. It was twenty years and many visits later that he managed to accomplish the task. And though his purpose is to depict the oppression and rebellion of the Indian masses today, he is involuntarily led down the bylanes of history to ask all the questions serious historians of India have been asking, and to provide some kind of answers of his own. It is a remarkable fact about Indian society that if you embark on a serious study of its nature you are led backwards and backwards through 1857 and the East India Company, through Mughal mansabdars and Afghan adventurers, through temple-building and land-grants, through Manu dharmasastra, the Gita and Kautilya, through the Buddha, the Upanishads and the Vedas, to arrive out of breath at the mythical figure of the Aryan warrior with his hymns, his horse and his spokeless chariot. And then you start with him and follow him as he chops and burns down the Gangetic forest, and painfully reconstruct these three thousand years' history to your satisfaction, before you can understand why the poor of India are as oppressed as they are and why they are oppressed in the manner they are. Likely as not, you will feel at the end that you know no more now for all your labours than you did to begin with, but there is no way out. In India the past has eaten into the present with a comprehensiveness that leaves you with little choice.

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