ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

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South Korea The Entrepreneurial State

John Ashdown SOUTH KOREA is a land of the economic spectacle: an annual ten per cent rate of growth since 1962 (and a breathtaking 40 per cent rate of growth of exports). In the miracle year of 1973, national product grew by nearly 17 per cent. Even in 1976, when the rest of the world was still groggy from the battering of 1974, Korea expanded its national product by 15.5 per cent, and its exports

The Mythology of Foreign Capital-A Comment

spread risks. Firms of this sort have still not grown up in India, and efforts to found state-owned firms have encountered severe organisational and marketing problems.

Coming Out of the Fog

Coming Out of the Fog John Ashdown CZECHOSLOVAKIA today is still the most effervescent country of Eastern Europe, with its future form most unclear. Currently, experiment and novelty seem to dominate its intellectuals. Indeed, it is possible to visit its major institutions of learning without meeting anyone who calls himself a 'Marxist-Leninist', or anyone who does more than give a wry smile when they hear the term. Existentialism is academically respectable in philosophy, sociology is just beginning to develop, political scientists discuss the merits of a two-party system, surrealism dominates painting, and musique concrete is the rage. All this is only very misleadingly described as 'revisionism', a term spanning quite contradictory tendencies from Bernstein to Lukacs. Consistent with these diverse experiments but not with modern revisionism, radical economists seem to speak solely of how to create in Czechoslovakia something they call a 'market economy', how to raise incentives, how to increase income inequality, and ridicule the theoretical imperatives of the old Soviet-style 'command economy'.

China's Ideological Purge

The central problem that faces China's leadership today is how to retain movement while standing: still. Since 1961 the economy has been run in a low gear with only short-term and conservative targets. Abroad China's foreign policy has had some severe defects. The prospect that faces the country's leadership is very different from the triumphs of 1964 when China was chasing the Soviet Union hard. Unsuccessful intransigence abroad makes necessary a continuously intensified campaign at home and since real economic campaigns have had to be ruled out ideological campaigns must take the whole strain. It Is in this situation that the genesis of the ideological purge of the Chinese communist party is to be found.
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