ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

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Rural Income Distribution and Poverty in Bihar

Rural poverty and income distribution were critically analysed based on an intensive survey (1996-97) in eight villages representing all agro-ecological regions of Bihar. Results indicated that income distribution was less unequal in technologically 'developed villages' than in 'less developed villages'. Agriculture and/or rice income was more equally distributed than non-agriculture income. Thus, the diffusion of modern agricultural technology did not affect the distribution of agriculture income but rather reduced inequality of overall income distribution. Further, rural poverty was lower in technologically 'developed villages' than in 'less developed villages'.

Poverty and Income Distribution in Rainfed and Irrigated Ecosystems

Intensive household surveys in six rice-growing villages of Chhattisgarh region under two different ecosystems, irrigated and rainfed, indicate that income from all economic activities is much higher in irrigated ecosystem than in the rainfed. The share of rice in total household income was higher in the irrigated areas than in the rainfed, but the concentration of income from this source was almost the same. Technology-irrigation intensity contributed to higher incomes, but a larger share of the income accrued to land and capital. Rice contributed to an increase in household income inequality but it was offset by a reduction in income inequality from the non-farm sources. The incidence, depth, and severity of rural poverty were much lower in the irrigated ecosystem than in the rainfed.

Modern Farm Technology and Infrastructure in Vietnam

Household-level data were generated from eight villages representing different ecologies and states of infrastructure development from both North and South Vietnam to study the issue of poverty and income distribution. Results show that the adoption of modern rice varieties under irrigated conditions substantially increased rice yield and reduced the unit cost of production, but the profit and income effect was insignificant when they are cultivated under rainfed conditions. The concentration of income and the incidence of poverty were lower in the 'developed' villages than in the 'less developed' villages.
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