ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

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Election Studies in India

Election Studies in India Imtiaz Ahmad While election studies have proliferated in the last two decades, they have failed to equip us with any expertise either in the anticipation and prediction of electoral outcomes or in understanding electoral processes generally. Their contribution in enabling us to arrive at any precise formulations about the political behaviour of the Indian electorate has been marginal This is dismaying as a huge quantum of scarce national resources has been involved in the whole enterprise of election studies.

Muslims in India Part of the Larger Problem

of two broad approaches on each aspect. The choice of the sides taken by the delegates was therefore not without meaning, even if many signified their choice only through silence' for example by not speaking about the Thai Muslims.

Religion in Politics-A Comment

A Comment Imtiaz Ahmad R SRINIVASAN's report (Economic and Political Weekly, September 4, 1971, pp 1926-29) of the proceedings of the seminar organised by the Indian Council of Social Science Research to discuss the trends of development in political science in India is generally accurate and objective, but in a few places he has been unable to take sufficient note of the limitations of the papers and to capture the spirit of the discussions. For instance, he has stated in respect of the paper entitled "Religion in Politics" (Srinivasan gives the title as "Religion and Politics") that the discussion on the paper was marked by a great deal of acrimonious debate, though the paper itself was unexceptionable. Since I do not feel that the paper was quite as unexceptionable as Srinivasan's assessment suggests, I should like to take the opportunity of voicing my misgivings and criticisms about the paper and highlighting some of its more exceptionable aspects. I should like to add, however, that these comments arc motivated by a desire to work toward a clarification and objective analysis of the issues involved in the study of this important subject, and it is not my intention merely to criticise the author in any way, I hope that this discussion will contribute toward the emergence of a more objective and balanced approach towards the study and analysis of the role of religion in politics in India.

General Elections of 1967 in a Rural Constituency

This study reveals that the loyalties of religion, caste, kinship and [actional grouping serve as a basis for the organisation of political support in rural areas. All these loyalties work simultaneously but they are situationally determined and operate at different levels. For instance, communal loyalty becomes operative whenever the main conflict is between Hindus and Muslims. In a situation where the conflict is between the members of the same religious community, internal cleavages come to the fore and crystallisation of political loyalties follows the line of sectarian or caste distinctions.

Secularism and Communalism

Imtiaz Ahmad The evidence of history does not support the view that secularism as embodied in the Indian Constitution is derived from ancient Indian traditions or that there is a pre-existing place for secularism in the Indian system of values.

Muslims in India

The Indian Muslims by M Mujeeb; George Allen and Unwin, London; pp 590, 75s. THE PARTITION of the Indian subcontinent and the ensuing com- munal upheaval stimulated considerable interest in the history of the Indian Muslim community. A number of scholars undertook studies in the development of the history of Muslims in India, the growing estrangement between Hindus and Muslims in the twentieth century up to the time of partition and the frustration and disillusionment among the Indian Muslims since independence. M Mujeeb

The Ashraf and Ajlaf Categories in Indo-Muslim Society

 35 Mander, ibid, p 148. 36 J Mander, op cit, p 149. 37 Sisir Gupta: "India and Regional Integration in Asia", pp cit, p 11. 38 Sisir Gupta, op cit.

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