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THAILAND- A Report from the Northeast

and standard of living of the whole people, and, particularly the rise in the social status of women, giving them the consciousness to act in such a way as to reduce their own sufferings through repeated child-births as well as the opportunities for working outside the family. Kamath remarked that it was absurd to single out the acceptance of the small-family norm as the only factor in this many-faceted development process for immediate and 'drastic' implementation, Kumud Pore reminded the audience that increased population growth had been in fact one of the causes of the rapid economic progress of Europe and North America in the last 200 years. Against the familiar cry that the population of third-world countries is increasing at a 'phenomenal' rate, she pointed out that in the last 200 years, the population of the European countries has increased by over 500 per cent, while that of Asia by only 21 times.

THAILAND-Growing Student Movement

Growing Student Movement APART from the somewhat distant Indonesian archipelago, Thailand is the most prosperous country of south-east Asia. Its population of 42 million is the largest among the countries of the contiguous landmass of south-east Asia. It has a land-area of 514,000 square kilometres. Absolute monarchy in the country came to an end through a bloodless coup in 1932. One of the stated objectives of the coup was to take sovereignty from the King and give it to the people. But that never materialised. In fact, political power in Thailand has remained concentrated among a handful of people. The Thai pple have never had the chance to eide who should govern. Indeed, until the student uprising in 1973, governments changed through coups, Fifteen coups were staged between 1932 and 1973. During this period, the Thai people also occasionally went through the ceremony of elections. The elections were never to decide who would get the mandate, but rather to give ligitimacy to the members of an already successful coup. This procedure had even been incorporated institutionally.

BANGKOK- Reformist Gestures

because a considerable number of them do not want to join a technical elite, not because the reforms would add a year to many courses and push them a year further from an access to a wage. Undoubtedly these are the immediate ways in which the state's initiative would affect the student's lives, but students in France have traditionally looked beyond the boundaries of immediate material loss and gain, to the mechanisms of power in the society as a whole. Their failure in 1968, though that movement succeeded in startling and instructive ways, was the inability to win the rest of the working class (or key sections of it at any rate) to the momentum required for a serious confrontation with state power. It was not a failure of leadership, and it will not suffice to say, as Trotskyist groups in France have been saying and continue to say in this present struggle, that the working class has been betrayed and sold out by the Communist party. At some point, as it has happened in Portugal repeatedly over the last two years, the class must and will generate the determination to have no owners who can buy them out or sell them out.

VIETNAM-Elections on New Base

 VIETNAM Elections on New Base Harish Chandola THE first general election, for North and South Vietnam together, will be held on April 25

CHINA-Struggle over Education

to turn no longer to the moneylenders, a legislation can hardly help." The commission recommends that the public credit institutions should provide finance to the tribals not. only for agriculture, on which 88 per cent of the five million tribal population depends, but also for consumption needs. "The welfare department has issued an order which says that the tribals be given foodgrain loans from granaries on such occasions as marriage, funerals ... It is learnt that the granary officials are violating this order; it has also been learnt that the stocks in the granaries have depleted on account of corruption by the granary officials." Apart from this, "the government credit institutions observe strictly their formalities and do not take a sympathetic view of the tribals' needs".

ASEAN-After Bali

follow the united path. 1969 is not remote past when the Socialist candidate for presidential elections, Gaston Deferre, received a bare 5 per cent of the votes. It began to gather more popular support only after aligning itself with the common programme of the Left in June 1972.

ASEAN-Accent on Regional Co-operation

ASEAN Accent on Regional Co-operation Harish Chandola THE summit meeting of the five-member Association of South Fast Asian Nations (ASEAN), held in Bali on February 23 and 21, had two aims: (1) greater co-operation between the five members states in all fields to show the world that these non-socialist states were determined to stick together and maintain their identity, now that Southeast Asia had been divided into socialist and non-socialist States; (2) to see to it that whatever decisions were taken on co-operation among them were implemented. The summit was necessitated because ASEAN had in its nine- year existence failed to bring about any meaningful co-operation among the member countries. The Foreign Ministers met yearly and made recommendations, but most of them remained un- implemented, because they lacked mandatory power. For instance, if the Foreign Ministers had recommended certain measures for co-operation in the fields of trade and industry, then those measures had to be implemented by the trade and industry ministers of the ASEAN countries, and not by the Foreign Ministers. I Fence it was decided in May last that a meeting of the Heads of Government be called.

INDONESIA- State Involvement in a Free Market Economy

INDONESIA State Involvement in a Free Market Economy Harish Chandola IN Indonesia foreign investors have for long enjoyed tax holidays and import duty exemption for capital goods, right to remit current profits and depreciation of capital assets, and other substantial incentives. Between 1967 and mid- 1974, they invested $ 1.8 billion on 434 projects in the non-oil manufacturing sector, Japan's share (35 per cent) has been the largest, with the USA and Hong Kong following. There has been some resentment, presently subdued, against foreign investment, and in 1974 government decided in principle that all fresh investment should have majority pribumi (ie, indigenous Indonesian) equity, and laid down a time-table for indigenisation of majority equity in existing ventures. Its aim was the conversion of 31 per cent of all joint ventures to domestic equity. But despite this, the prevailing free market conditions, absence of price control and any real attempt to protect domestic industry continued to attract considerable foreign investment into Indonesia. In fact, in 1974, fresh approvals (non-oil but including non- manufacturing sectors) totalled $ 1.05 billion.

INDONESIA-Limits of Free Enterprise Growth

February 21, 1976 employed do not react because they cannot, and also that workers at car plants are exceptional in that they get so fed up of doing repetitive tasks on the assembly line or in the component shops that they feel any place is better than where they are. The Tories and the Labour right argue that people do not seem to mind being unemployed for the present because the unemployment benefits and social security that they get are becoming more and more adequate as a social wage.

Changing International Economic Order-The Chinese View

January 17, 1978 Changing International Economic Order The Chinese View Harish Chandola CHINA has come out in full support of the struggle of the developing countries for changing the present international economic relations and establish- ing a new international economic order. In China's view, the struggle has already won a series of victories.

US IN ASIA-New Pacific Doctrine

January 10, 1976 US IN ASIA New Pacific Doctrine Harish Chandola ON his return from China, Indonesia and the Philippines, President Ford announced yet another American doctrine. He called it the New Pacific Doctrine

EAST TIMOR-Indonesian Invasion

ment Corporation of Maharashtra have been merged, The work of the Oilseeds Corporation has been distributed among the four regional development corporations. The two corporations for hand- looms and powerlooms have been merged into the Maharashtra .State Textile Corporation. The Cultural Development Corporation and the Tourism Corporation have been merged into one, to be called the Maharashtra Cultural Development and Tourism Corporation. The City and Industrial Development Corporation (CIDCO) has been abolished. Its work has been divided into two parts: development of New Bombay has been entrusted to the Bombay Metropolitan Regional Development Authority and its activities in the rest of the state have been taken over by the Maharashtra Industrial Development Corporation (MIDC). The Maharashtra State Housing Corporation has been merged with the State Housing Board.

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