ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

Articles By Hami Ameen

Structural Transformation and the Gender Earnings Gap in India

Much attention has been focused on the exit of women from the workforce during the high growth period post-2004. However, alongside this exit, the same period also saw a rapid increase in the proportion of salaried workers among those women who continued to remain in the workforce. Simultaneously, education levels have risen rapidly for both men and women. In this paper, we examine the long-run changes in the gender earnings gap among salaried workers in India. We draw on five rounds of the National Sample Survey Office quinquennial Employment–Unemployment Surveys and two rounds of the Periodic Labour Force Survey to show that the raw gender earnings gap has narrowed in this period. But most of this is due to a convergence between male and female earnings in the top two deciles of the earnings distribution. At the bottom, where the proportion of women workers has increased most rapidly, the gap remains high and has grown.