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Legal Profession and Social Change

from the collective farm, Caroline Humphrey finds the distinction between work on the private plot and on the collective farm misleading. What, according to her, the agent seeks to maximise are 'manipulate resources' and the agent might be the individual, the work team, the brigade or the collective farm itself.

Growth of Slums and Hutments in a Metropolis Like Pune

Growth of Slums and Hutments in a Metropolis Like Pune H K Paranjape AN important reason for the growth of slums and unauthorised hutments in cities like Pune is the lack of any advance planning regarding the creation of employment opportunities through the setting up of industrial units, When new industrial states and areas are planned, industrial licertcjes for locating new units in the new areas, or for the expantion of the older units, are granted, and various other facilities for the setting up or expanasion of industries are provided, no preplan- ning about the area from which the work force for thaw develep- ments will come and how and by whom they will be housed is done. The assumption apparently is that a significant proportion of the work force will come from the villages and townships Which already exist and which have a number of unemployed persons. Therefore industry is located in these areas so as to provide employment to the unemployed inhabitants who already have their own housing. The question of providing new housing is therefore not supposed to arise.

The Vanishing MRTP Act-Will Only the Grin Remain

Will Only the Grin Remain? H K Paranjape A series of measures have been announced by the government during the last few weeks purportedly to ensure increase in production and productivity. The two most important aspects of thesce measures are the liberalisation of industrial licensing provisions and the proposed amendments of the MRTP Act.

How Poor Are We

THERE was a kind of 'jugalbundi' programme in economics at Pune the other day. It happened like this. When V M Dandekar delivered his Kale Memorial Lecture recently, one of the main critics to whom he was replying, P V Sukhatme, was present. It was suggested by a number of interested persons at the conclusion of that Lecture that Sukhatme should give his reply in a similar academic forum. This was agreed to and a discussion was organised at the Indian Institute of Education. Attended by a large number of students and researchers in the fields of economics, statistics, biometry and various other disciplines, it became an academic event. There was keen interest in listening to both themain participants. As A K Kamath who was in the Chair put it at the end, the debate remained inconclusive, and may perhaps remain so for quite some time. Dandekar's statement has already been published in these columns (July 25, 1981). Sukhatme's reply (August 8, 1981) essentially does not go much beyond what he had stated in 1978 ("Assessment of Adequacy of Diets at Different Income

Brothers Under the Skin

and penetratingly investigated in South Gujarat, But he has succeeded in exploding several myths and advancing a number of propositions, not just plausible but convincing, contributing to understanding of the social process which could be advantageously utilised not only by research workers in the field of informal sector, but also by those interested in the processes of development and change in general.

New Statement on Industrial Policy

3 The Committee of Regional Accounts has recognised this crucial gap in the availability of data at the regional level and recommended the preparation and presentation of estimates relating to state income and capital formation at current as well as constant prices in all the states, Cf, The Committee on Regional Accounts: First Report, issued by CSO, Ministry of Planning, Government of India, November 1974; and The Committee on Regional Accounts: Final Report issued by CSO, Ministry of Planning, Government of India, September

The Giants and the Giant-Killer

October 14, 1978 in Zambia's presidental poll. An amendment to the Party's constitution carefully framed to keep out three determined rivals for the Presidency (Simon Kapwepwe, Harry Nkumbua and Robert Chiluwe) was introduced in the national council of UNIP and approved with lightning speed. The "mere procedural chore" was over in a few minutes, to the admiration of Kenya's official press. This is held up as a model for Kenya's October 6 conference! In view of the prospect that no incumbent of the Kenyan Presidency is at all likely to have the charisma of Kenyatta, there is speculation that Kenya may have an executive prime minister in the near future. It is on the cards that the President will become more of a ceremonial figure with limited powers and that effective Statical power will be wielded by a Prime Minister.

Joint Sector and Control of Indian Monopoly- A Comment

of Indian Monopoly",1 Aurobindo Ghose has attempted to examine the whole problem in a particular context. My own views about what the joint sector can and should be

The Joint Sector

H K Paranjape To use the term Joint Sector to cover all investments made by public sector financial institutions in private sector industry would so widen the scope of the concept as to make it almost meaningless. The term should cover only concerns in which a substantial chunk of equity, say, one-third to one-hall, is controlled, as a matter of deliberate policy, by the government and public financial institutions.

Socialism or State Capitalism

H K Paranjape ONE of the curiosities of the Approach document is that it speaks about the "establishment of a fully democratic and socialist society" having been accepted as "the only means for the realisation of these goals" (emphasis added). The "socialist society" is thus not a goal but merely a means, the goals being "consolidation of the demo, cratic political order, prevention of concentration of economic power, reduction of disparities in income and wealth, attainment of balanced regional development, and spread of the institutions, values and attitudes of a free and just society". The Fifth Plan, it is stated," must take the country another major step forward along the chosen course". Overlooking the inconsistency between the establishment of a fully democratic society being a means as well as a goal, one should expect that the Approach would at the least specifically indicate how the country would move along the socialist path in whatever limited way during the Plan period. Such a hope however is belied.

After the NDC

polity, is in a more confused state today than ever before. This is in contrast to the feeling in 1960-61, at the beginning of the Third Plan, that we were set on a very well charted course. This feeling had not diminished very much even after the Chinese aggression. But since 1964, after Nehru's death, there has certainly been a feeling of increasing purposelessness, lack of direction and drift. The change was marked in the very institution which was supposed to provide a stable and sustained direction to the economy, namely, the Planning Commission. The approach to the Fourth Plan in the Planning Commission before and after Nehru's death indicated significant changes. The Notes on the Perspective of Development prepared by the Perspective Planning Division in April 1964, were tentatively accepted as the basis for further discussion in a Planning Commission meeting held before Nehru's death; but the whole approach to the Fourth Plan became uncertain after Nehru's death. Ideas like having a 'plan holiday' or a 'plan pause', or completing the Third Plan before starting on the Fourth, etc, had begun to be voiced even during 1964-65. Nehru's successor, Lai Bahadur Shastri, was known to be somewhat sympathetic to these ideas. The gradually increasing drift in economic and developmental policy had thus started even before the Indo-Pakistan conflict and the the disastrous harvests from which the country undoubtedly suffered.

Why Publish Such Work

Why Publish Such Work? H K Paranjape Management of State Enterprises in India, by Ratan Kumar Jain; Manaktalas, Bombay, 1967; pages xiii + 532; price: Rs 45.

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