ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

Articles By Guru Prakash Singh

Livelihood Volatility in the Urban Labour Market

This paper aims at capturing the labour market volatility, which is conceptualised in terms of the lack of sustainable sources of livelihood across different quarters in a year. Though we were unable to identify the number of times workers change their jobs, the change in the job status, which cannot occur unless the job changes, unravels important findings as retrieved from the repeated survey of the same households over different quarters. The results bring out the vulnerabilities of the lower castes, illiterates, and those belonging to large households. The urban informal economy is indeed faced with income volatility, which is connected to employment instability.

How Unstable Are the Sources of Livelihood?

This paper, based on the data from the annual Periodic Labour Force Survey, reflects on the lack of sustainable sources of livelihood and the phenomenon of multiple activities pursued simultaneously. A thorough analysis of the quarterly data suggests that in the rural areas, workers largely dependent on agriculture are compelled to shift to other activities in the off season. The nature of employment also varies, particularly in the urban areas. The occupational choice model estimated based on the quarterly data is indicative of changes in the marginal effect for workers of a given caste or an individual with a certain educational attainment. Certain social categories and workers with less educational attainments are more susceptible to changing probability of joining a particular activity and adopting multiple activities.