ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

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Total Factor Productivity Growth in Developing Economies

Management of total factor productivity in developing economies remains, by and large, an unresolved problem despite industrialisation through efficient resource-use becoming a major objective of the economic reform programme. The present study attempts to open a solution channel by considering TFPG as a result of interaction between economies of scale and technical change. Thus, it seeks to lay emphasis on proper management of scale economies and technical change for producing a desired TFPG. For that purpose, estimation of TFPG is carried out with the help of translog cost function, which gives information on these two components simultaneously. The empirical findings of the exercise on data of aggregate manufacturing sector and eight selected industries of India indicate that both scale economies and technical change have registered a declining trend in recent years producing in the process a declining TFPG. There exists, therefore, a good case for prescribing policy measures that lead to better exploitation of economies of scale and technical change in India.

Fluctuating Total Factor Productivity in India-Evidence from Selected Polluting Industries

Evidence from Selected Polluting Industries Gopinath Pradhan Kaustuva Barik While re-examining the growth path followed by total factor productivity (TFP) in the Indian manufacturing sector, keeping in view the conflicting inferences drawn by recent studies, this paper attempts to take into account some of the theoretical as welt as empirical issues that seem to have been overlooked by the Indian studies. On finding through a statistical test that primary and intermediate inputs are not separable in the production function, the present analysis proceeds with an estimation of TFP on the basis of output in place of the usually preferred variable 'value added1 in the Indian studies. As a fall-out of such a step, the growth recorded by TFP is found to have a positive trend with a marked deceleration during the 1980s, Such a result, therefore, enabled the study to come up with a conclusion that there was no 'turn around' in TFP growth during the 1980s as has been pointed out recently. Extending the TFP estimation to a selected set of industries, identified by the Central Pollution Control Board, New Delhi, to be amongst the most polluting ones, it has been found difficult to substantiate either the claim of a turn around in the growth path of TFP during the 1980s or the option of value added as an appropriate choice for its estimation in the Indian industrial sector. An important finding of the present exercise is one of TFP in India following a fluctuating growth path.

Capacity-Expansion and Competition Enforcement Policy

This paper seeks to examine the role of competition enforcement authorities when pre-entry restrictions on capacity expansion are removed. For that purpose it evaluates the minimum efficient scale (MES) of operation of the cement industry in India. Findings of the empirical exercise show that cement market of the country can accommodate a reasonably good number of producers and hence is capable of providing a competitive environment if firms were to operate at MES level. However, an assessment of the installed capacity of the cement plants indicates that many cement companies with single or multiple plants tend to have firm sizes much beyond the prescribed level by the estimated MES. Thus the possibility of erecting strategic barrier by some of the producers to forestall competition may not be ruled out.

Concentration in Cement Industry under New Policy Regime

under 'New Policy Regime' Gopinath Pradhan This paper highlights the persistence of non-competitive features of the cement industry in India after the change in government policy in 1982. For this purpose, the changing character of producers' concentration is examined. The empirical evidence indicates that the rate of decline of concentration stowed down after 1982. In contrast to the earlier trend, the post-1982 period has experienced an increasing control of production by a few big producers.

Excise Duty Evasion on Cotton Textile Fabrics

The few studies that exist of tax evasion in India have been largely confined to direct taxes, particularly personal income-tax, and there is hardly any empirical study of evasion of commodity taxes. Given that commodity taxes predominate in the government's tax revenues, this is an obvious, lacuna.

Comparative Performance of Technocrats, Educated Unemployed and Trader Entrepreneurs- A Case Study of Small Scale Industries in Orissa

Unemployed and Trader Entrepreneurs A Case Study of Small Scale Industries in Orissa Gopinath Pradhan Many programmes have been initiated in successive Five Year Plans for developing small-scale entrepreneurial talent in the industrial sector. On the basis of the preferential treatment shown by the government the owners of small-scale units may be divided into a 'new' class, i e, the educated, and others who are mostly traditional entrepreneurs from trading and rich peasant backgrounds.
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