ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

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Initiating Devolution for Service Delivery in Pakistan: Ignoring the Power Structure: Local Power in Pakistan

 Local Power in Pakistan G K Lieten Any book with a title that refers to democracy and to the devolution of political power in Pakistan will lead to raised eyebrows. In its long post- independence history, moments of democracy in Pakistan have been very few. It took 10 years for a constitution to be framed but the first military coup by Ayub Khan ensured that it was not promulgated. The first constitution which he promulgated in 1962 was more secular than Islamic, but it also adopted the principle of partyless democracy and elections could not take place. One decade later, elections landed Pakistan in a turmoil, with Mujibur Rahman leading east Pakistan with a landslide victory to independence. After the formation of Bangladesh, prime minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto in the remainder of Pakistan (i e, west Pakistan) could not remain in power for long. A public hanging brought an end to his populist rule, a rule which was left-leaning in its public messages and conservative in its policies.

Child Labour

Child labour, for all the advocacy towards its abolition, remains a confusing social phenomenon. If child labour is to include all types of work done by children, even by children who otherwise go to school and assist in the household, the problem would indeed be on a massive scale. In 1999, the ILO agreed on a major policy priority: to tackle the worst forms of child labour first, in the form of Convention 182. Though the ILO stands by the importance of Convention 182, in practice, the impetus and focus appear to have been lost. Moreover, the statistics are ridden with encumbrances and there is a need for more evidence and a realistic approach.

Child Labour in India

In the drive for universal education all children not in school have been subsumed as working children. Such a development is ill-advised. This article analyses this changing definition in the context of the Labour Commission Report 2001. With a redefinition of child labour, the number of working children is set at more than, 10 times the official figures available from Census and NSS reports. Such a development only aggravates the problem.

Human Development in Kerala

The first CPI-led government in Kerala in the late 1950s introduced key policy changes that have since become associated with the Kerala development model. This article makes an attempt to assess the long-term effects of this innovative approach followed, especially in the two crucial sectors of education and land reform. In seeking to map progress in such key human development aspects, it also seeks to establish the role of social mobilisation and in assigning to the key figure of the 'Kutiamma' her due place in history. But while the impact of social changes on people remains little documented and rests on extrapolation, this period is also assessed in terms of backward and forward linkages - those societal changes that existed before the CPI's election victory as well as changes brought on by the government's own reform measures that in turn led to further political and social development.

NGOs and Local Government in Pakistan

likely be associated with the functioning NGOs and Local of a strong state rather than with an emasculated state. The separate studies to illustrate the Government in Pakistan The New Development Paradigm: Papers on Institutions, NGOs, Gender and Development byS Akbar Zaidi; Oxford University Press, Karachi, pp 321, Rs 295 (Oxford Pakistan

Children, Work and Education - II

For some it is a source of indignation at the social injustice which it involves, for others it is a yardstick to come down on irresponsive governments in the third world, and for yet others it is a natural consequence of an asymmetrical world economy. Child labour in India, when sized down to realistic proportions, remains a ignoble illustration of exploitation and exclusion but a less dramatic illustration than would appear from the exaggerated claims and studies by some western observers. In the tradition of Mamdani, it still often is assumed that children are an economic asset, and that the high fertility, leading to child labour income, is actually a conscious household strategy of rural families. In this, the second part of the article, this view is traced in the course of field work in two villages in Uttar Pradesh. It is argued that advocacy of schooling and of family planning is constrained by limited availability rather than by cultural (de)formations. [The first part of the paper was published last week.]

Children, Work and Education - I

For some it is a source of indignation at the social injustice which it involves, for others it is a yardstick to come down on irresponsive governments in the third world, and for yet others it is a natural consequence of an asymmetrical world economy. Child labour in India, when sized down to realistic proportions, remains an ignoble illustration of exploitation and exclusion but a less dramatic illustration than would appear from the exaggerated claims and studies by some western observers. In the tradition of Mamdani, it still often is assumed that children are an economic asset, and that the high fertility, leading to child labour income, is actually a conscious household strategy of rural families. In the second part of the article, this view will be traced in the course of field work in two villages in Uttar Pradesh. The article argues that advocacy of schooling and of family planning are restrained by the limited choice rather than by cultural (de)formations.

Pakistan: Demise of an Economy

Issues in Pakistan's Economy by S Akbar Zaidi; Oxford University Press, Oxford (also OUP Karachi), 2000: pp xvii + 462; price not given .

Working Class History

New World; of those, like the Africans, who were brought to the New World as slaves; and of those, like the Asians, who were exported as indentured labourers to the colonies. Oommen' s historical survey goes beyond the well known cases to encompass lesser known instances, such as the experiences of people of African origin in Brazil and of people of Indian and Chiense descent in Fiji.

Microfinance Dissected

G K Lieten Finance against Poverty by David Hulme and Paul Mosley; Routledge, London and New York, 1996; volume 1 (pp 221) and volume 2 (pp 451).

From Neo-Marxism to Neo-Populism

From Neo-Marxism to Neo-Populism? G K Lieten The Underdevelopment of Development: Essays in Honour of Andre Gunder Frank edited by Sing C Chew and Robert A Denmark; Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks/London/New Delhi, 1996; pp XV + 427, Rs 595.

Panchayats in Western Uttar Pradesh-Namesake Members.

'Namesake' Members G K Lieten Comprehensive rural development and panchayati raj have been associated with the rural economy and polity of Uttar Pradesh since the early 1950s. On the basis of a case study in a green revolution area in the north-western zone of the state, the composition and the internal functioning of the panchayats are examined. The author concludes that personalised control over resources is the key word.

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