ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

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Leasehold Forestry in Nepal

While community forestry schemes have had a limited impact on securing poor livelihoods, the leasehold forestry system based on the allocation of a portion of community forest to the poor, including women, has had a positive impact on livelihoods. A project in Nepal has the dual objective of raising incomes of poor families in the hill regions through the production of fodder and fuel and improving the ecological conditions of the hills. Surveys since the project was introduced have indicated an increase in the average period of food self-sufficiency in every involved household. The increase in local food security was also reflected in a decline in migration; there were also indirect effects due to the decrease in women's time spent in fodder and fuel collection.

Redefining Women's 'Samman'

In Bangladesh, the unintended consequences of the microcredit system with NGOs as partners have been far-reaching. The very structure of social production that focused on 'man as the breadwinner' has changed to accommodate a substantial and permanent role for women as income-earners. A clue to the far-reaching consequences of this transformation is the manner in which gender norms of respect are being re-created from glorifying 'purdah-nashin' women to valuing independent income, education, work outside the home, mobility and professional engagement. Such changes have in turn, led to substantial alterations in the norms and concepts by which women define their terms of engagement with the world.

Civilisational Change: Markets and Privatisation among Indigenous Peoples

The paper deals with changes in the social and economic system of indigenous peoples upon integration into market systems. The change in production norms is not confined to elite accumulation but also results in a change at all levels, marking a civilisational change from a system based on stability to one based on accumulation. The new norms, however,come at the price of loss of guaranteed access to productive resources, the decline of traditional social welfare systems and the spread of commoditisation. Such a transition, however, need not be a surrender to laissez-faire or neo-liberal policies, but can deal with negativities, including increasing masculine domination. New forms of community and continued non-market access to critical resources, like land and forests, would allow for a greater spread of the benefits.

Case for Local Forest Management

The paper argues that forests are not only sources of timber and non-timber forest products, but also of environmental services. It is through the fall in the supply of local environmental services, like nutrient recycling and soil formation, that forest communities bear the external costs that are not included in the price of timber and other forest products. Local environmental services are taken into account in forest management decisions by local communities, but not by external agents, like forest departments, and form a basis for setting up local forest management systems. In arguing for the establishment of forest communities' property rights over forests, the paper supports the establishment of markets for regional and global environmental services provided by forests.

Capitalist Stability and Pre-capitalist Surroundings

Capitalist Stability and Pre-capitalist Surroundings Accumulation and Stability under Capitalism by Prabhat Patnaik; Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1997; pp viii+322, Special Indian price Rs 725.

Timber in Meghalaya

A Supreme Court order meant to protect forests is turning, in Meghalaya at least, into its opposite. By putting a zero value on trees as timber, it encourages a shift to lower value uses and thus the mining of forest resources. Rather than restricting the notion of property rights of forest dwellers, as the Supreme Court ruling does, the international trend is towards increasing acceptance of property rights and the related commoditisation of the environmental services that forests (i e, the forest dwellers) provide to the external world.

Agrarian Involution, Domestic Economy and Women

Seeing the Asian crisis in only its urban dimensions, it is very easy to conclude that the crisis affects mainly men who have lost their jobs in construction. But though that statement is not true even of the urban economy, when the rural economy is brought into the picture, the role of the domestic economy and of women within it are both sharply brought out. In order to comprehend the rural dimensions of the Asian crisis, the authors take the example of Thailand, with some supplementary material from Malaysia and Indonesia.

Women as Witches and Keepers of Demons-Cross-Cultural Analysis of Struggles to Change Gender Relations

Cross-Cultural Analysis of Struggles to Change Gender Relations Dev Nathan Govind Kelkar Yu Xiaogang This paper examines the processes which led to the change in gender relations and the establishment of patriarchy. Specifically, the authors look at some events which are evidence of the struggle between women and men in the course of establishing men's domination. The phenomena analysed are those of 'dain' among the Santhal and Munda in Jharkhand, India; the 'pippa' of the Dai in Yunnan province of China; and the Chao Pu Xi among the Naxi and Du among the Mosuo, also in Yunnan province.

Collective Villages in the Chinese Market - II

Dev Nathan Govind Kelkar This paper studies the functioning of collectives in China's market system. How do they combine welfare provisions with the need for efficiency? How do they solve the 'free rider' problem discussed in relation to common property systems? Given that there does not exist a separate class of owners, do the collectives lead to a higher income level for the producers? Do they have a tendency to distribute more as benefits to workers and accumulate less than standard capitalist firms? Can one identify a stratum of managers within the collectives? If so, what are their relations to the workers?

Collective Villages in the Chinese Market

This paper studies the functioning of collectives in China's market system. How do they combine welfare provisions with the need for efficiency? How do they solve the free rider' problem discussed in relation to common property systems? Given that there does not exist a separate class of owners, do the collectives lead to a higher income level for the producers? Do they have a tendency to distribute more as benefits to workers and accumulate less than standard capitalist firms? Can one identify a stratum of managers within the collectives? If so, what are their relations to the workers?

Armed Struggle in Philippines

Dev Nathan The contemporary Filipino revolutionary movement goes back to the late 1960s when socio-political upheavals were taking place in many parts of the world. In December 1968, the Communist Party of Philippines was reorganised and since then has successfully adopted the path of armed struggle, with a force of 20,000 full-time guerilla fighters, people's militia and mass support in many areas. This report in two parts based on discussions with leaders of the party and the New People's Army traces the history of the movement.

Armed Struggle in Philippines

the initial falsifiers: Sir Henry McMahon, Sir Charles Bell, Sir Olaf Caroe, knights of empire all ready to lie for the government in which they were part. He traced Caroe's hand again in 1945 when official maps were changed to adumbrate a tentative claim to Aksai Chin

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