ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

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Congress and the Rural Rich

and functional form he chooses. But, then the comments do not go beyond noting that the coefficients are significant and the overall R2 is high; or, at best, that the coefficients are of the right signs. The values of the coefficients are neglected because they are not meaningful. For instance, in the present case, the author observes: "The picture is the same when we consider the cow-bullock ratio instead of the cow density. Other things remaining the same, this ratio tends to be high in areas with high bullock density and to be lower in regions where the calving rate and/or the survival rate of young milch [presumably should be male] cattle is high. ... Interestingly, there is no indication of regions with high bullock density economising on the number of cows they need to maintain by achieving higher calving rate and/or lower death rate of young male cattle" (pp 73-74). The basis of the last observation is not clear. The author does not seem to see that it is disconcerting to his main thesis. For him, it is only interesting. If we tell him that his data do not support his hypothesis, probably he will reply: "Maybe. But isn't it interesting?" Evidently, his is, what is called, a robust hypothesis. A more meaningful analysis of the data should be possible. For instance, the arithmetical relation between the ratio of adult male stock (AMC) and the adult female stock (AFC) and other three factors is as follows:

Class Base of Swaminarayan Sect

David Hardiman This study of the class base of the Swaminarayan sect shows the sect to be an ideological voice of an emerging class of commercial farmers and capitalist entrepreneurs. It manages to attract the support of large numbers of more humble people who aspire to climb into this class and who swallow the sect 's view of the world uncritically. The class which the sect represents is moreover one in which power is in the hands of patriarchs and in which female family members are both exploited and kept in a condition of daily humiliation.

In Praise of Marwaris

February 14, 1987 literature, who in his life tried to synthesise what was best in his Vedantic tradition with the best that came from British. CR appreciated and respected the independent advice his civil servant gave him: a far cry from the prevailing practice now when the civil servant first makes sure what his minister wants to hear before giving advice.

The Nationalist Trap

The Nationalist Trap David Hardiman Nationalist Thought and the Colonial World

HISTORY-Subaltern Studies at Crossroads

HISTORY 'Subaltern Studies' at Crossroads David Hardiman THE second Subaltern Studies conference was held in Calcutta in January 1986, three years after the first such conference in Canberra (for a report see EPW February 26, 1983). At the earlier conference the editorial group of the series of books known as "Subaltern Studies" set out and argued a position which is now well known. Themes such as the relative autonomy of subaltern consciousness and action, the need to make the subaltern classes the subject of their own history, the failure of the Indian bourgeoisie to speak for the nation, and the existence of two domains of politics have provided a fresh critical thrust to much recent writing on modern Indian history and society. In this conference, organised by members of the group based in Calcutta, the focus was less clear than it had been in Canberra, in large part because the group had not met together as a whole for the past three years. Individual members have developed their own directions of study and lines of thought, so that it became hard for participants in the conference to discern any very strong unity to the group.

The Communal Base to Indian Nationalism

THIS volume brings together essays written by Ravinder Kumar in the late 1960s and 1970s. Their reappearance in this form will be welcomed with enthusiasm by all those who, like me, owe much in their understanding of modern Indian history to the lucid and penetrating writings of this author. In these essays he covers a wide range of important themes, such as the rise of the middle classes and rich peasants, working class organisation, the social base to Indian nationalism, the historiography of the nationalist movement, and the whole phenomena represented by Gandhi. In this review I shall not attempt to deal with all of these topics; rather, I shall concentrate on what I feel to be the most important contribution of this set of essays, namely Ravinder Kumar's, study of solidarity in Indian society and the communal base to Indian nationalism.

Divide and Rule in British India

Prelude to Partition: The Indian Muslims and the Imperial System of Control by David Page; Oxford University Press, New Delhi 1982; THERE are two popular explanations for the partition of India in 1947. The first, which tends to be favoured by Indian nationalist historians, lays' most stress on the British policy of divide and rule. Through skilful manipulation, the British fostered the growth of two rival political entities in India

Elite Conflicts in a Trading Empire

Elite Conflicts in a Trading Empire David Hardiman Indian Merchants and the Decline of Surat c 1700-1750 by Ashin Das Gupta, Franz Steiner Verlag, Weisbaden 1979; pp 307.

Portrait of a Stagnant Society

Portrait of a Stagnant Society David Hardiman Winners and Losers: Styles of Development and Change in an Indian Region edited by S Devadas Pillai and C Bales; Popular Prakashan,

Lament for Lucknow

Lament for Lucknow David Hardiman The Raj, the Indian Mutiny and the Kingdom of Oudh, 1801-1859 by John Pemble; Oxford University Press, Delhi 1979; Rs 48.

Peasant Movement in Awadh

Peasant Movement in Awadh David Hardiman Agrarian Unrest in North India, The United Provinces 1918-22 by Majid Hayat Siddiqi; Vikas Publishing House, New Dehli. 1978; pp xiv+247, Rs 60.

Princes vs Burghers

Princes vs Burghers David Hardiman Urban-Rural Integration in Regional Development: A Case Study of Saurashtra, India, 1800-1960 by Howard Spodek; University of Chicago, Department of Geography, Research Paper No 171, 1976; pp 144; $ 6.

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