ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

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Towards an Alternative Agrarian Reform

The plantation industry in south India is in a state of deep economic crisis. There are secular and cyclical factors that account for the present state of the industry, although the former appears to be the more dominant. This is particularly true of the large plantation holdings of tea in south India, which unlike the small peasant tea holdings are unable to withstand the crisis. This essay argues for a major restructuring of the plantation sector, with special reference to the tea plantations in Tamil Nadu, through a process of labour empowerment based on contract farming.

Economics and Policy Implications of National Biodiversity Legislation

This paper examines the critical issues involved in operationalising the National Biodiversity Legislation in India. It discusses the structure of 'prior informed approval' envisaged in the legislation, and examines the provisions on the protection of traditional knowledge and suggests measures to enhance it. The paper also highlights the significance of the decision-making process relating to bioprospecting contracts, including balancing concerns for conservation with bioprospecting.

WTO Agriculture Agreement, Common Property Resources and Income Diversification Strategy

In the wake of the dismantling of the quantitative restriction (QR) regimes and the ongoing round of negotiations on the WTO Agreement on Agriculture (AoA), India and other like-minded developing countries have been raising fundamental concerns on the likely adverse impact of the AoA on their food and livelihood security systems. Simultaneously, the government of India has also initiated measures for carefully monitoring and regulating the import liberalisation process ushered in by the Exim policy 2001-02. Based on these developments, this paper advocates rigorous negotiation positions and proactive programmes of development in order to address the pressing problems arising from the AoA. Developing countries, whose agrarian economies are characterised by 'ecosystemic multifunctionality', have the scope for providing income diversification opportunities for the weaker sections of the farming communities through development of common property resources. This then could form the best safety net to contain the fallout of the agri-agreement.

Regulating Transgenic Plants in India

Biosafety, Plant Variety Protection and Beyond A Damodaran This article argues for viewing the issue of regulation of transgenic plants in India from both the economic and biosafety angles. The article argues that transgenic products could meet with resistance from the market place in India due to complex patterns of demand amongst farmers for new cultivars. This aspect coupled with the policy and law framework have the potential of providing adequate checks and balances on oligopolistic tendencies of biotech companies, transnational or domestic. Also discussed are certain lacunae in India

Regulating Transgenic Plants in India

This article argues for viewing the issue of regulation of transgenic plants in India from both the economic and biosafety angles. The article argues that transgenic products could meet with resistance from the market place in India due to complex patterns of demand amongst farmers for new cultivars. This aspect coupled with the policy and law framework have the potential of providing adequate checks and balances on oligopolistic tendencies of biotech companies, transnational or domestic. Also discussed are certain lacunae in India's policy-legal framework which need to be addressed for converting the potential into realisable results.

Theorising to Explain and Triangulating to Explain Away-The Art and Non-Art of Multi-Method Policy Research

to Explain Away? The Art and Non-Art of Multi-Method Policy Research A Damodaran Emery Roe Triangulation is a interdisciplinary social science method wherein multiple methods, databases, theories, disciplines and/or investigators are used to study the same object, event or phenomenon. This paper attempts to critically assess the method of triangulation by employing four distinct theories to decipher a complex village community event in Karnataka. What gets unravelled in the process is a central paradox at the heart of rural development practice, namely, the more particular and complex event at micro-level, the more government's respond by seeking standardised and generalised solutions, Triangulation, by meeting this imperative to recognise the general behind specific events, satisfies the requirements of policy-makers, a fulfilment which is not without its own dangers.

Local Self-Governments and Geometry of Biodiversity Conservation-Roots of the Incompatibility

Biodiversity Conservation Roots of the Incompatibility A Damodaran Conservation of biodiversity is today a global environmental concern. The international community is steadily inching towards a global convention for the conservation of the unique variety of the biological resources of the planet. Not withstanding the international concern, for in situ conservation of biodiversity to be a reality, its local human conservers ought to be 'socio-ecologic communities' inhabiting an 'ecological' space.

Tragedy of the Commons and Comedy of Common Property Resources

Common Property Resources A Damodaran This paper underlines the analytical and ideological significance of differentiating the tragedy-stricken free-riding' common resources from the comedy-prone common property resources, sustainahly and equitably managed by the community of users. It is argued that while state take-over of common property resource is retrograde, state appropriation of the free-riding commons pre-empts the possibility of their transformation to common property equity resources.

Morphology of Grazing and Its Crisis in Sedentary Communities

Sedentary Communities A Damodaran This paper attempts an analysis of the specificity of the grazing crisis faced by sedentary village communities possessing livestock, a crisis which has two facets, viz, deteriorating common village pastures and other grasslands and abject famishment of livestock. The mode of analysis adopted is to first of all examine the morphology or 'natural' essence of grazing in its spatio-temporality and then proceed to examine why the natural essence is not tapped in sedentary grazing due to the social factors governing the spatio-temporality of livestock in these communities.

Structural Dimensions of Fodder Crisis-A Village Study in Karnataka

A Village Study in Karnataka A Damodaran This paper examines the structural dimensions of the fodder crisis taking the case of a village situated 26 kms away from Bangalore. In the first section the data base and methodology of the study is spelt out The second section describes the setting of the village in its ecological, social and economic dimensions in the traditional context from the viewpoint of fodder as a resource and proceeds to throw light on the traditional man-livestock relations on the villages of the district. The third section, depicting the changing scenario, is divided into three parts
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