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Spatial Pattern of Agricultural Development in India

in India G S Bhalla D S Tyagi With the adoption of new seed fertiliser technology, agriculture in major parts of India has undergone a significant transformation. The yield levels of some crops have experienced phenomenal rise, thereby accelerating the growth of agricultural output in states where these crops constitute an important component of the cropping pattern. Whereas to begin with, during 1962-65 to 1970-73, the green revolution was confined to only a few northwestern states, it seems to have gradually extended to many other parts of India during the seventies, though this extension is still much too narrowly confined. This paper seeks to study the spatial pattern of agricultural growth in the country, taking 19 major crops which account for 82 to 90 per cent of both area and value of output in the different states. Also discussed are the changes in male agricultural worker productivity THE main purpose of this paper is to highlight the spatial pattern of the levels and growth in agricultural output in the country, as also the variations in labour productivity at the state level In the case of foodgrains, the analysis is based on the comparison between the quinquennia ending major crops, the analysis is based on the

Inter-Sectoral Terms of Trade-Misconceptions and Fairy Tales

Inter-Sectoral Terms of Trade Misconceptions and Fairy Tales D S Tyagi SCIENCE'S main business is discovery of truths about the world. Truth states facts. All scientific concepts whether they be physical, psychological or sociological, must be defined in terms of observable characters.' In other words the statement of an empirical science must be confirmable by observation. Tferms of trade is an empirical concept. Recognising that the validity of crucial constructs relating to class relations conceived by Mitra2 was dependent on an observable phenomenon, namely that the terms of trade have moved in favour of agriculture, 1 have raised doubts regarding the veracity of this statement on methodological grounds.3 Later on we have argued that since the term terms of trade implies a comparison of prices at which the trade has taken place between the two sectors,4 the degree of accuracy of the estimates of terms of trade obviously depends upon: (a) the comprehensiveness of the identified pattern of trade, (b) the reliability of weights used for constructing the price indices in reflecting truly the share of different items in the total trade between the two sectors, (c) the capacity of selected price/price indicators to truly reflect changes in prices paid by the two sectors for purchases made from other sectors.

Domestic Terms of Trade and Their Effect on Supply and Demand of Agricultural Sector

Domestic Terms of Trade and Their Effect on Supply and Demand of Agricultural Sector D S Tyagi Both the issues, viz, (i) whether the terms of trade have moved against or in favour of agricultural sector, and (ii) whether the changes in terms of trade have effected the rate of growth of Indian agriculture have been debated at length. This paper focuses on (a) how the terms of trade between agricultural and non-agricultural sectors have moved since early fifties, (b) what has been the impact of adverse or favourable terms of trade on the rate of growth of agricultural output in different periods, and (c) what has been the impact of movement of terms of trade on demand for non-agricultural commodities by the agricultural sector The analysis leads to the con- elusion that movement of net barter terms of trade can have significant impact on the pace of investment in the agricultural sector as well as on the rate of growth of agricultural output. However, the impact of terms of trade turning adverse to the agricultural sector on the growth of investment in agriculture and on its output can be neutralised, to a great extent, through technological developments.

On the Relevance of Farm Prices

On the Relevance of Farm Prices D S Tyagi RECENT trends in empirical research have led some to conclude that "researchers have reached a point of sharply diminishing returns".1 While this observation may continue to be debated in the profession, a plausible explanation for the emergence of such feelings could be the shift in emphasis from methodology to results. The basics of empirical research, namely, the quality, i e, reliability, representativeness and suitability of the basic data and consistency of the economic point of view translated into equations both with common knowledge and economic logic, now seem to be at a discount. The trend is, collect some data from any source, feed these into a computer, get results adopting a sophisticated model and even if the results, obtained are prima facie funny do not waste time on checking the assumptions of the model, the quality of data, the suitability of tool and the consistency of results with basic economic logic but go ahead and give policy prescriptions. Recognising the damage such exercises are likely to do to economic policy decisionmaking or to the proper appraisal of policy decisions, their limitations need to be highlighted. This paper aims at illuminating the limitations of such exercises.

How Valid Are the Estimates of Trends in Rural Poverty

Rural Poverty?
D S Tyagi This article argues that the incidence of poverty that has been stressed by much of the literature cannot be taken at face value. , Since there is a relationship sought to be established between 'trends in rural poverty and "agricultural growth', with consequent implications for policy, it is all the more important to be clear whether estimates of poverty and trends in it are correct.

Inter-Sectoral Terms of Trade

A S Kahlon D S Tyagi The debate on inter-sectoral terms of trade has of late shifted to the concrete question of whether unfavourable terms of trade have contributed to the depressed growth of the Indian agricultural sector. Some scholars hold the view that farm prices have been systematically and, perhaps, deliberately kept down while others believe that various incentives have pushed agricultural prices disproportionately upward.

Farm Prices and Class Bias in India

D S Tyagi This paper questions the following propositions.
(a) that the terms of trade have moved in favour of agriculture; (b) that high foodgrain prices go against the interests of landless labourers and small farmers; and (c) that the government's price policy is influenced by the 'kulak lobby.

New Agricultural Strategy and Small Farmers-A Case Study in Gujarat

Review of Agriculture March 1969 Notes 1 For a fuller discussion of the implication of labour productivity in the agricultural sector for a wages policy, see D R Khatkhate : "towards a Meaningful Wages Policy", 2 Agricultural Labourers in Four Indian Villages (mimeographed), edited by V S Vyas, Sardar Vallabhbhai Vidyapeeth, Vallabh Vidyanagar, 1964 3 "Plight of the Landless : Two Million Victims of Paralysis". Times of India, December 30, 1968.

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