ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

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Towards Humane Forest Conservation

Towards Humane Forest Conservation Community Forest Management in Protected Areas: Van Gujjars Proposal for the Rajaji Area, (Foreward by Justice P N Bhagwati); Rural Litigation and Entitlement Kendra, Natraj Publishers, DehraDun, 1997; pp 336, price

Where Assertion Is Insurrection

Instead of appreciating that a conscious, articulate and rational population is a great national asset which is essential for democracy to take root in any society, the administration in Orissa is treating every dissent as defiance and every assertion as insurrection. Findings of a study team to report on the situation arising from the acquisition of a large tract of agricultural land belonging to tribals by the Orissa government for Utkal Alumina International in Kashipur tehsil of Rayagada district.

People s Participation in Planning

The real import of Article 243-G, which defines the powers, authority and responsibilities of the panchayats has not been well appreciated in most states. There has been little effort at getting the mass of the people involved in the planning process or in the setting of plan priorities. In this process the interests of the silent though numerically stronger sections of the people are not addressed. The Kerala model of a people's campaign for decentralised planning aims at resolving this issue.

Not a Gramscian Pantomime

Development, Devolution and Democracy: Village Discourse in West Bengal by G K Lieten; lndo-Dutch Studies on Development Alternatives 18; Sage Publications, New Delhi. 1996; pp 252, Rs 250.

Administration, Decentralisation and Good Governance

Administration, Decentralisation and Good Governance D Bandyopadhyay I COMMEND the concept of 'good governance' in its simple English meaning. But I have a strong objection to the term as it is being touted in the recent years by multilateral and bilateral aid agencies as a part of precondition of aid or as a process of reform as conditions of aid. It is becoming an in-thing in recent development literature assiduously crafted and hawked by the north either to deny aid or to use it as leverage in securing changes in the system of governance in the aid receiving countries. The World Bank and the OECD have become great proponents of this concept. The World Bank has identified three distinct aspects of governance: (i) the form of political regime; (ii) the process by which authority is exercised in the management of a country's economic and social resources for development; and (iii) the capacity of governments to design, formulate and implement policies and discharge functions. The OECD uses the World Bank definition of governance with the following links: legitimacy of government (degree of democratisation), accountability of political and official elements of government (media freedom, transparent decision-making, accountability mechanisms), competence of governments to formulate policies and deliver services, and respect for human rights and rule of law (individual and group rights and security, framework for economic and social activity, and participation).1 One is touched by the mock modesty of the Bank document when it states that as its charter prohibits, it does not look into the form of political regime as if by manipulating the other two elements, it does not subvert the first, but the OECD which consists of the old imperial powers does not have any such compunctions. With all their commitment to legitimacy of governance and human rights et al, most of the aid was directed towards strategic allies in the cold war, to many authoritarian regimes, to many high military spenders. Even today, two-and-a-half times as much percapita ODA goestohigh military spenders as to low military spenders. Even today, strategic allies get preference over poor nations, for example, El Salvador receives 16 times as much US ODA per poor person as does Bangladesh even though Bangladesh is five times poorer.2 Isn't this a fine example of the north's sophisticated hypocrisy and subtle double-speak? The term 'good governance' as it is being used today by the north has become the symbol of recoloni- sation and new Imperialism.

Grassroots Justice Law, System and People

and People D Bandyopadhyay To remedy the present atrophy of the process of justice at the grassroots even partially an elective system for administration of justice with a positive bias in favour of the rural poor has to be developed from below. Towards this end, the author proposes a judicial committee, directly elected by a special electorate comprising the rural poor, attached to the lowest tier of panchayati raj institutions.

A Lesson in Development

D Bandyopadhyay With the onset of the development decades the aid agencies started sniffing around for projects to bring the small mountainous country into the mainstream of the third world development process. They were as sincere and motivated as their predecessors in the last century who endured untold suffering and took risks far beyond the normal' call of duty to take the light of the gospel to the healthens and pagans in the dark recesses of the world.

Direct Intervention Programmes for Poverty Alleviation-An Appraisal

This paper provides a critical appraisal of the major poverty alleviation programmes like the Integrated Rural Development Programme (IRDP), the National Rural Employment Programme (NREP) and the Rural Landless Employment Guarantee Programme (RLEGP). In order to make these programmes more effective, the author recommends linking them with a programme of land reforms, planning and implementation at the grassroots level and a major role for organisations of the rural poor Introduction IT may be made clear at the outset that the rural development programmes and schemes currently underway do not aim at any basic structural changes in the agrarian society. Within the given social, economic and political parameters of the existing situation, an attempt is being made to enhance income levels and living standards of the poor by self and wage employment programmes and provision of some degree of social services and social consumption through a package of schemes for the satisfaction of their minimum needs. This process might trigger off a chain reaction leading to some basic- changes depending upon the degree of political awareness generated and determined political intervention to galvanise such awareness to achieve any political objective. But that would be, if it ever happened, a totally unintended fall out of this programme.

Land Reforms in India An Analysis

D Bandyopadhyay The Sixth Five-Year Plan had indicated a time-frame for completing various tasks under land reforms. Legisla- tion for conferment of ownership rights on tenants was to be enacted by 1981-82. The programme for taking over possession and distribution of ceiling surplus land was to have been completed by 1982-83. Both these tasks still remain unachieved.

OBITUARY-An Intrepid Protester

merely because the police have to break into private premises in order to conceal the equipment there." There is yet another aspect. Under Indian and English law, evidence no matter how improperly obtained, is admissible in court if it is relevant. In the United States it would be inadmissible. We need three minimum safeguards. One is, as in cases of searches of premises, the safeguard of a Judicial warrant The other is stringent punishment for unauthorised tapping. Lastly, evidence obtained by illegal tapping should be inadmissible in court Unless these safeguards are given statutory sanction we are condoning a system of systematic eavesdropping by the State, OBITUARY An Intrepid Protester WITH his shock of unruly gray hair, unkempt flowing silvery beard, glowing and penetrating eyes, dishevelled and, often, dirty kurta and pyjama, one could have imagined him to be anything from a seer to an agitator. In fact, his was partly both

Agricultural Holdings Tax A Modified Scheme-A Comment

bound by some social obligation, rights and ditties. The interdependence among the classes in the economic and social affairs was mom than what it is today. This was probably further strengthened by the functional division of caste, the spirit of paternalism and extension of kinship obligation. However, besides these economic relationships, there are socio-cultural relationships among the classes which have not been touched upon here.

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