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Economic Analysis of a Drinking Water Project in Andhra Pradesh

This paper looks at the cost of delivery and benefits of a drinking water supply project undertaken in Anantpur district in Andhra Pradesh. The study finds that the project was carried out rapidly and has largely met its aim of supplying sufficient and safe water. A comparison of this project with national-level projects throws up substantially higher capital costs for the former. This, however, has to be weighed against the better quality as well as operation and maintenance of the AP project.

Development Perspective for Indian Agriculture-A Hopeful View

A Hopeful View C H Shah Indian agriculture has shown resilience and growth potential since the 1920s, but particularly so since national planning brought with it greater intervention and investment directly by the State, Thus extention of cropped area with irrigation, institutional innovations for supporting extension work and investment, and the technological breakthrough with the Green Revolution, respectively, over the 1950s, 1960s and 1970s, have certainly propelled the growth of Indian agriculture.

Small Farmers Policy and Problems

Small Farmers: Policy and Problems C H Shah Small farmers, together with marginal farmers and farm labourers, constitute a sizeable section of the rural community. Their low incomes, close to or often below the poverty line, should cause anxiety. However, asserts this paper, the future for small and marginal farmers need not he dark, if one recognises that the resource constraint limiting them is basically a matter of organising them.

WALTAIR-Fail-Out of Green Revolution

Fail-Out of Green Revolution THE green revolution provided the backdrop to the annual conference of agricultural economists at Waltair, Andhra, from December 29 to 31, 1969. Concern for the small farmer dominated both the presidential address of V M Jakhade of Reserve Bank and the special address, a new feature, delivered by B Venkatappiah, Member, Planning Commission.

Essentials of a National Food Policy-A Critique of the Foodgrains Policy Committee s Report

summary description of a group of bivariate observations. One may of course ask, "How does one know whether a figure of 0.55 for correlation coefficient is significantly high or not? In the absence of any test of significance, one's judgment would be subjective'*. It is in order to form an objective judgment that the econometrician conducts a test of significance and makes a statement of the following type: "The probability that the true value of the correlation coefficient is non-zero is more than 0.99". But the objectivity thus gained is of quite an illusory character. Firstly, in many instances, the scatter of points is unique and no true value exists for the correlation coefficient: the value of 0.55 is all that there is to the scatter by way of correlation coefficient and there is no means of going beyond it. Secondly, as we have seen before, the figure 0.99 would be based on certain unverifiable subjective assumptions. Therefore, one's subjective judgment regarding the significance of 0.55 does not become objectivised by putting next to it the subjective figure of 0.99. Nevertheless, the figure 0.55 for the correlation coefficient is far from being meaningless. The same can be said about many other statistical tools. Different types of averages: the arithmetic mean, the geometric mean, weighted averages, etc, have been extensively used with benefit in many different fields of quantitative work without any probability assumptions being made. The standard deviation is a commonsense measure of the degree of dispersion in a set of one dimensional observations. The method of least squares had proved its usefulness over centuries before the invention of the term Maximum Likelihood Method. Fitting of curves to empirical frequency distributions or to time series is a useful statistical device for condensing data: a large number of observatons may be replaced by two or three numbers representing fitted parametric values and this is useful even without any probability interpretations. Even such test statistics as Student's t and Fisher's F have got commonsense meaning and may be used with benefit, provided they are made to refer strictly to the data under analysis and not invested with any spurious probability significance.
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