ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

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Abandoned Agenda

Abandoned Agenda Biswajit Dhar South-South Trade and Development by Steen Folke, Niels Fold and Thyge Enevoldsen; Macmillan, London, 1993; pp xiv + 267.

Trade Policy and Development

Trade Policy and Development Biswajit Dhar AS countries in increasing numbers have taken to the now dominant policy of economic liberalisation, academic discourse has become replete with studies prescribing strategies that countries should adopt in keeping with the framework of liberalisation. Joshi and Little's article [Joshi and Little 1993] is another contribution to the long list of literature that is available. Our comment on the Joshi-Little contribution would focus more on the formal structure within which the authors make their suggestions about the elements of the future of the trade and foreign exchange policy for India. We would briefly examine the available literature on trade policy to present our views.

Patent System and Pharmaceutical Sector

Patent System and Pharmaceutical Sector Biswajit Dhar C Niranjan Rao ANALYSIS of the impact of changes in patent laws have acquired prominence in the context of the patent regime that the Uruguay Round of GATT is seeking to introduce. The volume of literature produced on the subject has been phenomenal which has contributed to the ongoing debate. But unfortunately there is also a flip side to the debate. Articles have been produced without adequate understanding of the terrain that is sought to be covered. Authors of such articles tend to take a predetermined position and then try to produce masses of data to overawe the uninitiated. The contribution by Prasad and Bhat (1993) forms a part of this category of articles. Right from the manner in which the problem is posed to the methodology adopted, nor. to speak of the inaccuracies in factual details and interpreta- tions, the article appears to be some what contrived. The intent of the authors may have been to express their support for the Dunkel proposals and to convey the message that India should not be afraid of the proposals. But even in doing so they should have made a more competent attempt at handling the complex of issues involved.

Trade Policies and Development-Conventional Wisdom Questioned

classic treatise on contagious disease De Contagiosis Morbis. In the period examined here plague was absent from the Florentine state but there was a massive predominance of other infectious diseases particularly tuberculosis, typhus, malaria, small pox, influenza and gastrointestinal diseases, the diseases of underdevelopment. Cipolla states "Diseases do not develop in a vacuum. It would be a grave mistake to limit oneself to an aetiological concept of diseases which considers only the action of microbes or viruses. Epidemiological studies have made us increasingly aware of the role of environmental and socio-economic factors in the aetiology, incidence and prevalence of diseases. The pattern of morbidity in a given society is determined above all by socio-economic and hygienic conditions." This uncontestable conclusion is marred by one paragraph where the author restates his familiar position on the relationship between the demographic changes induced by mortality and its economic effects[5]. Seductively simplistic, if fallacious, this argument has been effectively demolished a number of years back by Brenner[6]. Cipolla's restatement of the 'dominant paradigm' of what Brenner called secular Malthusia- nism, in spite of empirical evidence to the contrary, is one further example of the power of ideology to overlook inconvc nient facts.

Trade and Environment The GATT Perspective

the Soviet Union since the rupee was being devalued frequently against the basket of hard currencies. But the interests of both countries would have been better served by arriving at a realistic rupee- rouble exchange rate with the Soviet Union providing for fluctuation of the rouble value also in relation to the same basket of currencies. Instead the former Soviet Union preferred to continue with the unrealistic fixed rouble-dollar exchange rate.

Dunkel Draft on TRIPS-Complete Denial of Developing Countries Interests

Complete Denial of Developing Countries' Interests Biswajit Dhar C Niranjan Rao The Dunkel draft on TRIPS is heavily biased in favour of the patentees. While their rights have been enlarged, their obligations have been considerably watered down. This marks a reversal of the spirit of the 70s when the issue in international negotiations was how to make technology transfer between the north and the south more equitable. The TRIPS negotiations have focused exclusively on the monopoly rights of patentees from developed countries and, in doing so, all the issues raised in the debates on the 'Code of Conduct for Transfer of Technology' and the 'Code of Conduct for Multinational Corporations' have been conveniently forgotten. The developing countries have to contend with an unequal world order. This is the most important message of the Dunkel draft on TRIPS.

Factors Influencing Technology Selection Case Study of Thal-Vaishet and Hazira Fertiliser Projects

Case Study of Thal-Vaishet and Hazira Fertiliser Projects Biswajit Dhar Earlier studies have emphasised that the dependent nature of industrialisation in the developing countries can be traced back to the dependence of these countries on imported technology. This monocausal explanation does not seem to be quite valid when some more advanced countries are considered. In countries like India the gradual maturing of the industrialisation process has resulted in the development of modern technology by the local firms in some sectors of the economy.


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