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AFGHANISTAN-Bending the Peaks of Hindukush

Bending the Peaks of Hindukush MOSCOW'S publicists were exporting a large cargo of hope, but the responsible organs of power were only cautiously optimistic Even on March 5, the day the twice- postponed seventh round of UN-sponsored proximity talks between Pakistan and Afghanistan was inaugurated in Geneva, APN, the Soviet feature service, distributed a curtain-raiser in which it was boldly declared that "most observers agree that this round of talks has every chance to prove final". APN evidently took its cue from the spokesman of the Soviet foreign office, Cennady Gerasimov, who had hazarded as early as February 18 that the coming Geneva round would be "the final in these negotiations". The optimism was echoecj in Pakistan. The national news agency/in a despatch two days before the beginning of the Geneva talks said that there was hope in Islamabad that the seventh round would "close the gap" between the Pakistani and Afghan positions on the time-frame for the withdrawal of Soviet troops from Afghanistan. Pravda, however, sounded a cautious not Writing on the eve of Geneva-VIl, it S4 that all the remaining issues could not be expected to be resolved in just one session: "it takes time to thread the web of political compromises". Pravda added quite candidly that "the events in Afghanistan show that the process of national reconciliation will be complex".

Business and Politics in Pakistan

Business and Politics in Pakistan Bhabani Sen Gupta Interest Groups and Development; Business and Politics in Pakistan by Stanley A Kochanek; Oxford University Press, Bombay 1983;

Problems of Nation-Building in Bangladesh

phenomenon and women in all societies are more vulnerable to stress and depression on account of the consequences of this unequal status. This is a very significant hypothesisation and opens very wide possibilities for research.

Anatomy of Marxist World

Marxist Governments: A World Survey (Three volumes) edited by Bogdan Szajkowski; The Macmillan Press, London; pp 822,

Socio-Political Base of Military Rule in Pakistan

February 13, 1982 Patidars dominated the Congress, and sometimes by active discrimination against their participation by a Patidar leadership which was unwilling to take up their issues. Similarly, Patidar Hindu conservatism made Gandhi's anti-untouchability efforts practically a dead letter in the areas of their dominance and resulted in the dalits becoming British loyalists as a reaction. Here, as with the issue of the character of the Patidar group itself, Hardi- man's research shows the lack of and need for a theory that can give an adequate historical materialist analysis of the linkage of caste and class in 20th century India.

Baluch Nationalism and Future of Pakistan

Baluch Nationalism and Future of Pakistan Bhabani Sen Gupta In Afghanistan's Shadow: Baluch Nationalism and Soviet Temptations by Selig S Harrison; Carnegie Endowment for International Peace,

The Widening Gulf

"SO thrive in my dangerous affairs of hostile arms!" Shakespeare might have put these words in the mouth of an actor on the contemporary world stage appearing in the role of the Persian Gulf, This oil-rich strategic region has been militarised merrily over the decade of Oil power by the United States, the Soviet Union and other industrialised states through the willing agencies of the local monarchs intoxicated by the borrowed glamour of arms. Kunwar Rajendra Singh, of the School of International Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University, offers in this trim handsome volume a detailed, sharp analysis of the arms transfers to the Gulf states in the 1970s and some perceptive suggestions on how to introduce a certain measure of arms control in that volatile region. The Persian Gulf has acquired unusual importance for India's security and national interest. Indeed the two geopolitical areas of the Gulf and South Asia have been telescoped into a single geostrategic area in the last decade, although at present the Reagan administration is trying to create a new strategic area concept called Southwestern Asia which, in Washington's current military oriented perception, extends from Egypt to Pakistan. Whatever may be the US intentions, it is in India's interest to develop in our universities and research centres serious studies of the political, social, economic, strategic and military aspects of the Persian Gulf region and its individual members. Unfortunately, we have only a handful of scholars specialising in Gulf affairs. Among them K R Singh stands out with his research and analysis, his published books and papers.

What Bangla Revolution Was Not

ALL revolutions are unfinished, some more unfinished than others, and some very, very unfinished, as if a sculptor abandoned his work in fear or disgust he fore it could even silhoutte, the frame he had in his mind. Such, it seems, is the Bangladesh "revolution", which thrilled so many Indians and Bangladeshis just 10 years ago. After the first flush of euphoric accounts, analysts began to take an increasingly hard look at the offspring of the blood and tumult of 1971. Maniruzzaman's hook deserves special attention because it is probably the most objective and credible analysis so far of what the joy Bangla revolution actually was, why it lost its steam so quickly, and why Bangladesh's political development has been so distorted and convulsive. The assassination of General Ziaur Rahman and the subsequent political events or non-events in Bangladesh enhance the value of this study. Talukdar Maniruz/.- zaman realised in 1979 what became so aburptly apparent in 1981: the Bangladesh armed forces have neutralised themselves both as a political and as a military force as a result of multiple internal convulsions. Not only are the officers imprisoned in acute factionalism and contending personal ambitions, they have little command of the rank and file of the armed forces

Non-alignment Demise of a Doctrine

Non-alignment: Demise of a Doctrine Bhabani Sen Gupta Non-alignment in Contemporary International Relations edited by K P Mishra and K R Narayanan; Vikas, New Delhi, 1981; pp 285,

Halitosis of the Intellect

Halitosis of the Intellect Bhabani Sen Gupta International Relations Theory: Western and Non-Western Perspectives edited by K P Mishra and Richard Smith Beal; Vikas Publishing House, New Delhi, 1980; pp 245, Rs 95.

The Fading of Henry Kissinger

 The Fading of Henry Kissinger Bhabani Sen Gupta AMONG the casualties of the Vietnam liberation war is not Henry Kissinger, US Secretary of State and National Security Adviser to the President, but the mythology of "Super-K". A demand has been voiced for Kissinger's resignation, but he enjoys the confidence of Gerald Ford and Nelon Rockefeller, of the "accidental Presidency" that must steer America through the shoals of the final, conclusive defeat in Indo-China.

The Cycle of Violence in West Asia

wage revision. Their demands were for a minimum wage of Rs 300, interim relief to all workers, 100 per cent permanency on the basis of job requirements, and houses or house rent allowance.

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