ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

Articles By Bernard Hours

Production of the South: Incongruities and Loss of Meaning

The half century after the second world war was marked by the division of the world into North and South, with the latter often taking on the politically charged selfidentification of third world. This was paralleled by the divisions of "civilised" and "barbarian" and of development and poverty. This article argues that such division of geopolitical space is no longer valid and there has been a dissolution and blurring of lines which identified one with the other. Through a review of different countries in the South, this article shows how both objective criteria and self-identification often do not follow the North-South binary. Rather, there is now a "South" in the developed world while solvent consumers of the South are increasingly indistinguishable from the North.

NGOs in the Service of Global Governance: The Case of Uzbekistan

In the years after the breakup of the Soviet Union, nongovernmental organisations mushroomed in Uzbekistan. But these NGOs were merely instruments in the hands of their sponsors - multilateral organisations and private foundations. The NGOs were essential to the sponsors, who used them as tools to change local practice, orienting it towards more privatisation, democracy and individual rights. But when times changed, the NGOs found themselves adrift. Caught between an authoritarian government (that kept them under surveillance) and foreign sponsors, local organisations found little freedom of movement. They had no social base to fall back on, no civil society that could be mobilised in their defence.