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Quest for Inclusive Growth

Building the Indian nation has required a conscious effort to bring its vast diversity into the economic mainstream. Politically, inclusion has functioned through a claim on fiscal resources for the so-called 'intermediate' classes. In principle, these 'intermediate' groups could have generated economic activity and employment for the larger number of poor to whom direct assistance was unmanageable. In practice, the amorphous intermediate groups have displayed limited leadership, with the important recent exception of the surge in information technology activity. Bold policy initiatives have been constrained because the aspirations to acquire the symbols associated with the intermediate groups have dominated. Major policy changes in India's political context are, therefore, possible only with strong new leadership in politically tranquil periods or under the duress of a crisis. To foster faster growth - while also breaking up the social hierarchies that persist in limiting inclusion - four long-standing challenges remain: undertaking effective decentralisation, raising educational attainments, placing limits on access to fiscal resources through binding fiscal rules, and achieving further discipline through external competition.

Opportunity Denied

Opportunity Denied Ashoka Mody India: Economic Development and Social Opportunity by Jean Dreze and Amartya Sen; Oxford University Press, New Delhi, 1995; pp xiv+292, Rs 395.

Good Economists and Poor Economic Performance

Good Economists and Poor Economic Performance Ashoka Mody "THE performance of an economy is inversely related to the strength and quality of its economics profession.'' On occasions when self-deprecation is socially charming, economists are apt to quote this aphorism, implying even as they do so that its validity is limited. The lack of renowned economists in Japan (with its powerhouse performance) and the plethora of Nobel Prize-winning economists in the United States (which has barely muddled along) is an interesting observation from which not much should be inferred.

Needed A Theory of Organisational Learning

Made in America: Regaining the Productive Edge by Michael L Dertouzos, Richard K Lester, Robert M Solow and the MIT Commission on Industrial Productivity; Cambridge: MIT Press, 1989; pp 344.

Technological Change from Inside

Ashoka Mody Breakthroughs! by P Ranganath Nayak and John M Ketteringham; Rawson Associates, New York, 1986. THIS is a book about products and services that have come to be regarded as indispensable (how did we ever do without them?)

Planning for Electronics Development

Ashoka Mody The key to the growth of the Indian electronics industry ties in the identification of a few products with either a large domestic or export market potential. Production would then have to be organised on internationally competitive scales. This paper attempts to provide a basis and a method for identifying 'appropriate products: The electronics industry is classified into four sectors on the basis of technological and scale characteristics and the current and potential markets for these sectors are assessed. The author then indicates a few areas for special emphasis and outlines the nature of organisational support required by these product groups.

Policy for Electronics Industry The Options

Policy for Electronics Industry: The Options Ashoka Mody THIS note is intended as a brief description of recent international competition in the world elctronics industry. The focus is first on the nature of US-Japan rivalry; this is followed by a summary of policy in some of the newly industrialising countries, including India.

Innovation, Market Structure and Location- The Electronics Revolution

through a highly professionalised, technocratic model of legal process could not be sustained, But we would not agree that such a model alone could be compatible with the ideal of a modern, secular and rational legal system. Modernisation does not necessarily mean westernisation, nor does it mean professionalisation. Our system has to be modern in the sense that it must be informed by constitutional values such as liberty, equality and justice; it must be secular in the sense that religion and caste should .not be grounds of discrimination; and it should be rational in the sense that rights, liabilities, power or privileges should be determined by this worldly considerations and according to fair and just procedures. In our zeal to adopt the indigenous model of a nvaya panchayat, we ought not to overlook the fact that a modern village has no longer the infrastructure for such a model of dispute settlement. Any opposition to de-professionalisation that stems from vested interests must be overruled, but can we adopt a tradition which goes against the constitu- tiqnal values? Should we recognise caste panchayats? The non-state legal system (NSLS) will have to function subject to the constitutional values such as liberty, justice and equality. It may supplement the State Legal Sys tem (SLS) but it cannot supplant it. Baxi also concedes that where conflict is of values the SLS will have to prevail. The SLS must incorporate the useful asbects of the NSLS such as informality of procedures, quickness and some substantive provisions such as compensation to the victim, of an offence in addition to or in lieu of punishment of the offender.

Rural Resources Generation and Mobilisation

Ashoka Mody This paper examines savings generation and deployment in the rural sector. It discusses the level and determinants of investment within the rural sector as well as the flow of resources to and from the sector in the form of financial liabilities and assets.

Environment and Development in India

Environment and Development in India The State of India's Environment 1982: A Citizen's Report, Centre for Science and Environment, New Delhi, 1982: Rs. 125.

International Cold Price Movements, 1972-1982

International Cold Price Movements, 1972-1982 I S Gulati Ashoka Mody This paper studies gold price movements during the decade 1972-82 which witnessed large fluctua- tions in gold price. Gold price traced out two principal cycles during the decade

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