ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

Articles By Ashima Goyal

Regulatory Structure for Financial Stability and Development

To understand the appropriate regulatory response to a financial crisis, we start from the basic market failures that justify regulation in financial markets. Regulation that induces better outcomes by creating correct incentives for market participants is the key to reform. A combination of micro- and macro-prudential regulation can moderate pro-cyclicality, information failure and market power. Global prudential standards can push financial firms to choose safe over risky strategies, by removing the moral hazard from bailouts, and assuring firms that competitors will not adopt risky strategies either. Universal application of basic standards can prevent regulatory arbitrage. A pure principles-based regulatory approach may be too flexible, but principle-based rules retain sufficient operational flexibility and universality.

Assessing the Fiscal Capacity of Indian Governments

This article assesses the record of different post-reform governments in meeting their fiscal targets and improving both delivery and finances. A variety of indices are constructed, and consistency checks devised to measure relative performance. No government has achieved its targets, but the Congress Party has had the best record in keeping its promises, and reducing deficits. The effect of the growth dividend on lowering government debt and deficits is established. But the failure of the government finances to improve proportionately with this suggests the need for further improvement in expenditure management.

Avoiding Handicaps: Assessing Global Policy Advice for India

Aaditya Mattoo and Arvind Subramanian ("India and Bretton Woods II", EPW, 8 November 2008) offer useful suggestions for India's stance in global groups such as at the g-20. Subramanian ("Preventing and Responding to the Crisis of 2018", EPW, 10 January 2009) does the same for India's macro-policy responses following the financial crisis. But the arguments of the two sets of proposals are inconsistent. Mattoo and Subramanian want India to support a proposal to give the World Trade Organisation enforcement powers against undervalued exchange rates, but Subramanian wants India to follow self-insurance as China did. The reason for the inconsistency may be the authors' preference for India to follow the United States' interests in international negotiations, but to follow its own interests when domestic policy is involved.

Governance in India's Public Transport Systems: Comparing Indian Railways and Airlines

The paper examines the basic reasons and feasible remedies for organisational weakness in India's public transport systems and the possible contribution of ownership, industry and management structure, leadership, social norms, and institutional incentives to alleviating the weaknesses. The arguments are illustrated with reference to the public rail and air services and help to understand why some public sector transport undertakings have performed better than others. The most effective changes are those that create incentives, broadly defined, for individuals to improve productivity.