ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

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Social Change among Jainas

January 29, 1983 15 The sweep of Tamil agrarian history, presents us with severa; classic illustrations of social dynamics as well as of sankritisatioo. The Agamudaiyar constitute one of the three ancient groups of warlike people in Tamil society, the others being Maravar and Kallar. While the Maravar were mainly located around the kingdoms or Itumnad and Sivagangai in the southern parts, many Agamudaiyar arc said to have served as mercenaries with the Vijayanagar empire and (Circa 13th-16th century) were settled with land by their patrons in the northern part. By the end of the eighteenth eecrtury they were claiming a Mudaliyar or Vellala status (Vel- lala being ritually superior to all three warrier groups). Thus at the turn of the eighteenth century and in early nineteenth century, a leading Agamudaiyar called Pa- chatyappan boldly called himself Paehaivappa Mudaliyar. The story of the Agamudaiyar is thus an old udage among the northern Tamil Vellalas :

Apathetic Response to Creative Challenge

would appear, there are entries that could easily have been done away with. Two instances, picked up at random, should help illustrate: THE PRIME MINISTER ON THE RELATION BETWEEN EXTERNAL AFFAIRS AND INTERNAL RELATIONS.

Islam in India

relatives and female relatives on the father's side become eligible for marriage is simply because the 'Gothras' are different. And even among the other, castes, cross-cousin marriages take place when the economic status of the parties are equal. She also notes that the birth of a girl-child is a matter of happiness in Tamil Nadu for the girl is 'Lakshmi' If this were so there are two Tamil proverbs that deny that. One says that 'if a boy is born it is precious and if a girl is born it is like a buffalo's birth'. Another says that 'with five daughters even, a king can become a mendicant' The only place where a girl's birth is welcome is in the traditional Deva- dasi's house.

Surat s Days of Glory

as feeling sorry'' for them. Each one of these profiles is an excellent account of poverty in its existential manifestations. More insights could have been obtained if the perceptions of the women themselves of their situation and of how they understand the systemic features of poverty and its solution had been recorded by interspersing the narrative feature with autobiographical accounts. As case studies, these profiles have served the purpose. What is needed next is not merely a presentation of the existential manifestations of poverty but an examination of its genesis and development in an explicitly systemic framework. And perhaps there Leela Gulati should avoid the title 'Female Poverty', houses, but dwelt in sheds. Even the richest crowded together, three or four families in a hovel, with goats, cows and calves, until they were almost poisoned with vermin and nastiness. But they had reason for what they did. Any Banian suspected of being rich was certain to be deprived of his wealth by the Nawab of Surat, unless he had secured the protection of some powerful grandee.

Behind Islamic Resurgence

attitudes of private firms towards increasing productivity in a developing country context must be understood for technology planning and policies to have any impact.

Critics in a Hurry

Bias in Indian Historiography edited by Devahuti, D K Publications, Delhi, 1980; pp xxxi + 407; Rs 110. THE Indian History and Culture Society (IHCS) held a Seminar on 'Bias in Indian Historiography' dining its second Session at Delhi in February, 1979. 32 of the 55 essays printed in this book were read in that seminar. The other 23 essays are "new or reinterpreted textual, archaeological and epigraphic data for the historian". These latter essays do not contain anything very remarkable, and need not bo considered for this review.

Religion and Social Change

company of Mushirul Hasan, the historian. The incidents left some two thousand Muslims dead, at the hands of, or at the instigation of, the local police. The mass media, by and large, tended to buy the official version of the events

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