ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

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Counting Jobs in India

A detailed review of various sources of labour statistics in India highlights the lack of long-time series data on total employment. The Labour Bureau’s attempt since the last couple of years in this respect has been helpful. To gauge the accuracy of these estimates, it is desirable to have data from at least two sources. Dependence on one specific source can be risky.

Why Wage Differences Exist across Sectors?

Inter-industry differences in wages are substantial, and over time, they do not seem to be disappearing. Productivity is a determinant of wage differences across industries, though the association between them is not very strong at the aggregate level or for intermediate goods, capital goods, and consumer non-durables. Trade liberalisation enhances productivity and wages at the aggregate level, and also in the case of basic goods and capital goods. However, in an attempt to raise productivity, firms may extract more work from those who are already engaged, and tend to pay them less than their due share in certain industry groups. Contractualisation and feminisation show similar effects for all the industry groups except the intermediate goods industries, and has a worsening effect on wages and also productivity.

Insightful but Incomplete

The Outsiders: Economic Reform and Informal Labour in a Developing Economy by Sugata Marjit and Saibal Kar (New Delhi: Oxford University Press), 2011; pp 218, Rs 695.

Social and Economic Inequalities: Contemporary Significance of Caste in India

 Social and Economic Inequalities: Contemporary Significance of Caste in India Rajnish Kumar, Satendra Kumar, Arup Mitra In an attempt to revisit the caste issue in the Indian context this paper analyses a sample of households from the slums of four cities. Vulnerability conceptualised in terms of several socio-economic and demographic indicators exists among most of the social categories though the relative size of deprivation varies across social groups. In a binomial logit framework, based on the pooled sample, the extent of decline in the probability of experiencing well-being beyond a threshold limit is sharper for the socially backward classes than the others. However, in individual cities such a pattern is not so conspicuous implying that all the social categories are equally vulnerable. These findings have important policy implications, indicating that policy initiatives for deprived areas irrespective of caste factor are more important than the caste-based support measures.

Relative Size of Informal Sector

in the rural areas of Bihar, Karnataka and Orissa and in the urban areas of Gujarat, Size of Informal Sector the number of workers in informal enter prises obtained from enterprise approach ARUP MITRA both the schedules differ substantially from exceeded the number of workers obtained Teach other in terms of the number of from the household survey (Table 1). his is in response to the paper by workers. By and large the household On an average at the all-India level, as S Sakthivel and Pinaki Joddar (EPW, schedule enumerated a larger number of seen from Table 1, around 55 and 47 per May 27, 2006). The authors provide es-workers than the enterprises schedule. Only cent of the non-farm workers are located timates of the informal (unorganised) sector Table 1: Relative Size of Informal Sector in Non-Farm Activities across States Table 1: Relative Size of Informal Sector in Non-Farm Activities across StatesTable 1: Relative Size of Informal Sector in Non-Farm Activities across StatesTable 1: Relative Size of Informal Sector in Non-Farm Activities across StatesTable 1: Relative Size of Informal Sector in Non-Farm Activities across StatesTable 1: Relative Size of Informal Sector in Non-Farm Activities across States workers in non-farm activities based on (1999-2000) the 55th round of NSS (Table 7), which

Labour Market Mobility of Low Income Households

According to the "over-urbanisation" thesis, migrants move into the urban areas in search of jobs, and in the face of limited employment opportunities in the high productivity industrial sector, they continue to work in low productivity activities. Urban poverty here is a spillover of rural poverty. But why do migrants not return to the rural areas if they continue to be engaged in low productivity activities? The reason could be that the informal sector offers them a better source of livelihood compared to rural avenues. This argument prompts us to pose a number of questions from an empirical standpoint. Based on primary surveys of slum dwellers in Delhi, the author examines if workers managed to experience a change in their occupation, over time. Even when the broad occupation categories remain the same, does the nature of employment change and do income levels rise? If so, what role do networks play in helping them access better paying jobs. The findings tend to support upward mobility in a limited sense though.

Rural Migrants and Labour Segmentation

Whether people benefit sizeably by migrating from rural to urban areas is a question that has loomed large in development economics literature. Based on a primary survey carried out among slum-dwellers in Delhi, this study examines the links between duration of migration, distance of migration, occupation and the incidence of poverty. With experience, it is found that migrants are more likely to move from low income and casual jobs to high income and regular jobs, and thus undergo an increase in their standards of living.

Total Factor Productivity Growth and Technical Efficiency in Indian Industries

Based on the panel data for 15 major states in India, this article estimates the time-variant technical efficiency and total factor productivity growth for 17 two-digit industry groups. The total factor productivity growth (TFPG) in a large number of industries seems to have improved across most of the states during 1985-86 to 1992-93 as compared with the rates estimated for the period 1976-77 to 1984-85. Technology acquisition, efficient utilisation of resources and infrastructure development are some of the factors which possibly contributed to the increase in TFPG.

Labour Mobility in China

union recognition, permitting greater freedom for direct industrial action by TUs by making them responsible for the consequences of such action: these are some of the ideas he strongly pleads for.

Changing Composition of Employment in Tertiary Sector-A Cross-Country Analysis

A large number of countries all over the world mostly developing and some industrial are at present implementing stabilisation and structural adjustment programmes. Deregulation and more particularly globalisation in many of these countries are likely to enhance the share of foreign trade in the economy. The domestic production structure is also likely to undergo radical change in the process of deregulation. All these would have a significant effect on the employment structure. The authors ' empirical results suggest that these will affect not only the overall share of the tertiary sector in total employment but will also change the employment structure. The implications of these changes deserve careful analysis.

Understanding the Informal Sector

says that "industrialisation is not only about getting prices right; it is also about getting state intervention right". As he puts it, in a world of uneven development, rapid technical progress, ever-changing comparative advantage and imperfect market structures, the role of government in industrialisation remains vital Human resource development, acquisition of technological and managerial capabilities and the creation of institutions 'INFORMAL SECTOR' is a term in the development economics literature which has been used extensively by scholars despite severe criticisms. The volume under review is a fruitful attempt in such usage. I call it 'fruitful' because while the term is used without bothering too much about a clear understanding of its characteristics, the book succeeds in integrating various issues and in interpreting the term in an operationally meaningful way.

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