ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

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Informal Sector Saving Potential-Some Further Thoughts

tax will no longer be entirely additive to what accrues to the states from the divisible pool by way of their share from income tax revenue. If they try to collect some extra revenue from the profession tax, why, the swings-and-roundabouts formula will come to operate, their receipts from income tax will to that extent go down. As far as centre- states financial relations go, in other words, the more they change, the more they will remain the same.

The Economy and the Budget

The Economy and the Budget Arun Ghosh IT is obviously not possible to attempt a detailed analysis of the budget immediately after the broad outlines are revealed in the budget speech; one needs to study the likely impact of the diverse expenditures proposed and the manner of raising resources for the same. Nonetheless some broad comments are in order since the Economic Survey presented four days prior to the budget contains useful information on the state of the economy, to which the overall aggregates (in the budget) can be related.

West Bengal Landscapes A Moraine on a Commuter Train

West Bengal Landscapes: A Moraine on a Commuter Train Arun Ghosh An hour spent on the commuter train to and from Calcutta is an education. Apart from the travelling salesmen and the wandering minstrels, there are the 'regulars' who have made the hour-long train journey an interesting interlude in their daily routine.

Productivity and Efficiency-Myth and the Reality

Productivity and Efficiency Myth and the Reality Arun Ghosh The latest generation capital equipment and technology are not necessarily optimal for Indian conditions; what is important is the absorption of technology, the proper utilisation of the capital equipment.

Decentralisation and District Government

Decentralisation and District Government Arun Ghosh It would be most unfortunate if the Congress(l), relying on its numerical strength in parliament, were to ram through a constitutional amendment delegating more powers to the district level without a public debate on the issues involved. The manner, extent and content of the proposed decentralisation should be put out in the form of a White Paper so that the proposals can be widely discussed.

The Riddle of Savings

are of 'dubious origin', 'ruined and adventurous offshoots of the bourgeoisie', Vagabonds', 'discharged soldiers', 'discharged jailbirds', 'escaped galley slaves', 'swindlers', 'mountebanks', 'lazzaroni', 'pickpockets', 'tricksters'; 'gamblers', 'maqueareaus', 'brothel keepers', 'porters', 'Hterati', 'organ-grinders', 'rag-pickers', 'knife grinders', 'tinkers', 'beggars'. It is pointless to complain that this description is a little too much; social reality is social reality. A dynasty-based system operates on its wits; it needs a social base of support; the support comes from such specimens as Marx meticulously describes; decrepit literati, for example, university professors or burnt-out poets, are as much a part of this base as are procurers and professional goons. Throughout the month of November, the nation's capital was chock-a-block with the presence of these elements who sustain the ruling party; it leans on them, and they in turn derive their livelihood from it. It should not therefore surprise that, sooner or later, they come to be formally represented on the highest echelons of the nation's administration. The level of culture the union home minister has provided evidence of during his recent performance in the Lok Sabha is that of the social base on which the dynasty depends; his thoughts and modes of expression are, in other words, the truest reflection of the state of the party which bears the flag of the dynasty In any epoch, the ideology of the ruling classes emerges as the leading ideology. The culture of the ruling classes does too. It has, in our country.

Money Stock, Velocity and Monetary Savings

Money Stock, Velocity and Monetary Savings Arun Ghosh It is a pity that even our monetary statistics


of Tamil interests in Sri Lanka than the Tamils themselves was of little substantive significance. Even if the assumption was objective!) correct, it was atrocious to act in terms of that assumption. The moment the government of India began to tell the Jaffna, Batticaloa, l'rincomalcc and Amparai Tamils, through the language of the army bayonet, what was good for them, it was total alienation. The Indian 'Peace' Keeping Force may continue to shoot down a do/en or so of Tamil youth, or come to capture a cache of Tamil arms. That only clinches the point: it is now exposed as an army of occupation, comprehensively hated by those for whose sake it claims to have marched in. Our government's residual hope rested on a rushed election and installation of a Tamil administration in the merged province; this administration could bargain, after December, with the newly-elected president in Colombo. The IT'LL calculate otherwise, and they have the strength to prove thai it is their calculations which matter. From their desks in New Delhi, foreign service mandarins may order our troops to arrange elections in Sri Lanka's temporarily merged province. The IPKF cannot however bully the people into coming to the booths; they cannot bully a sufficient number of individuals to stand as candidates so as to give a veneer of respectability to the so-called elections; they cannot even find electoral officers locally to receive the nomination papers. It is specious to claim, as New Delhi keeps claiming, that all this is because the LTTE has succeeded in terrorising the population. Large-scale terrorisation has played a part, hut it is also terrorisation by the Indian troops which has largely helped to make up the Tamil mind in Sri Lanka. Just ask the Tamil United Liberation Front, the political entity in Sri Lanka which, till about two years ago, held views most proximate to those held by the government at India; leaders of the Front would now have no hesitation in admitting in private that they have become irrelevant, and, in the island's northern and eastern provinces, it is Prabhakaran and his followers who have emerged as the symbol of Tamil pride and TamiI dignity.

District Planning New Delhi Style

District Planning: New Delhi Style Arun Ghosh The attempt to conduct district planning from New Delhi would be laughable were it not a sinister move to centralise all economic decision-making in the name of decentralised planning.

Management of Water Resources

Management of Water Resources Arun Ghosh Soil management, water management and watershed development are essentially integrated operations wherein the co-operation of the local populace is an essential ingredient for the success of government programmes. Herein lies the essential weakness of the approach of the authorities concerned with the management of water resources.

India Response to Glasnost

India' Response to Glasnost Arun Ghosh GLASNOST and perestroika are today household words among the educated elite in the west. Both ideas have also been commented upon extensively in India, so there is some danger that 1 may be repeating what has been said by others already. We may. therefore, leave Gorbachev to pursue his perestroika in the USSR, and examine the implications of Gorbachev's glasnost from the Indian point of view. Incidentally, perhaps (without much fanfare) Deng Xiaoping has turned around the Chinese economy more than Gorbachev's attempt at perestroika in the USSR has done at least so far. More importantly, Deng has stuck only to the perestroika part of Gorbachev's programme; glasnost is not quite what Deng has in mind, and the recent opening up of China to foreign tourists is quite clearly intended to carn China some foreign exchange from tourism rather than anything more.

Technology Upgradation and Economic Growth

The facility of liberalised licensing and technology import policy has led to the proliferation of import-intensive production of a large number of elitist consumer goods, all based on an uneconomic scale of production, possible only because of complete protection from import of the final product.


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