ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

Articles By Anjani Kumar

Role of Intensive and Extensive Margins in India’s Agricultural Exports

Increasing exports has been at the centre of policymaking for ensuring India’s economic growth and development. An analysis of the relative contribution of intensive and extensive margins to growth in India’s agricultural exports from 2001–20 reveals that the intensification of the export of existing products to existing destinations dominated export growth, whereas the contribution of export diversification has remained subdued. Broadly, the results indicate that India’s exports along the extensive margin have not been fully exploited and that export diversification holds the key to higher export growth. There is a wide scope for expansion of India’s agricultural exports through the development of new product varieties and markets.

Revisiting the Relationship between Public and Private Capital Formation in Indian Agriculture

Using the decennial All-India Debt and Investment Survey, this paper examines the spatial and temporal trends of private fixed capital expenditure among rural households. It also examines the impact of public investment and input subsidy on private agricultural investment. It notes that there has been a substantial increase in the spending fixed capital with significant interstate variations. An econometric analysis reveals significantly positive impact of public investment in agriculture and irrigation on private agricultural investment.

Crop Insurance and Rice Productivity

The factors affecting the demand for crop insurance are analysed and its impact on the yields of smallholder rice producers in eastern India is assessed. Using data from a large farm-level survey from eastern India, a positive and significant impact of crop insurance on rice yields is observed. The robustness of the findings are tested after controlling for other covariates and endogeneity, using propensity-score matching and endogenous switching regression models.

Does Public Procurement Benefit Paddy Farmers?

This paper investigates the impact of public procurement on paddy farmers in Bihar. Whether farmers’ access to public procurement agencies led to higher price realisation by them is examined here. The paper used a comprehensive telephonic survey of 1,976 farm households in eastern India (Bihar, eastern Uttar Pradesh, Jharkhand, Odisha, and West Bengal) and employed an endogenous switching regression model to estimate the impact of public procurement on farm harvest price of paddy. The findings reveal that farmers gain by selling to public agencies. However, they are unable to receive the minimum support price.

Determinants and Dynamics of Food Insecurity during COVID-19 in Rural Eastern India

Using comprehensive telephone survey data from 2,599 households, the paper estimates the status of food insecurity using the food insecurity experience scale in rural households in eastern India. The results indicate that households belonging to lower social strata with less land and fewer years of education are more likely to suffer from food insecurity.

 

Impact of National Lockdown on Rural Household’s Income

The unprecedented shutdown of economic activities led to a colossal loss of livelihoods. To understand the impact of this national lockdown on rural households’ income, the paper empirically examines the determinants of reduction in their income, and the effectiveness of government’s response in mitigating their economic hardships. The study is based on a comprehensive telephonic survey of 2,599 rural households from five eastern states—Bihar, eastern Uttar Pradesh, Jharkhand, Odisha, and West Bengal conducted during the lockdown period, June–July 2020. The econometric results highlight that (i) a number of socio-economic and demographic factors influenced income loss of rural households during the lockdown, (ii) the impact was relatively higher on the migrant labour, though it differed across the eastern states, and (iii) government cash and in-kind assistance under various social protection schemes were timely but requires expansion in both coverage and outreach.

 

How Did Agri-start-ups Fare during the COVID-19 Pandemic?

Although agricultural start-ups in India took a hit due to the COVID-19-induced lockdown, they have enormous potential in aiding economic recovery. A survey of 162 start-ups from 29 states, located in 98 cities, reveals that many start-ups have tailored their products, modified their technologies and invested in their long-term growth potential, even as they suffered from liquidity crunch, lack of investor funds and poor demand. The government should provide capital access, market access support and end-to-end solutions for innovation and marketing towards harnessing the power of these start-ups.