ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

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Fertiliser Industry in India: Moulded by Government Policies

Government policies on the fertiliser sector have been uncertain and inconsistent in the past decades, resulting in a growing subsidy burden and distortion of the optimal ratio of N P K consumption, especially after partial decontrol. Several studies and commissions have presented their conclusions on the retention pricing scheme, plant capacity assessments and subsidy reduction. These include among others, total decontrol of the sector in a time-bound manner. But political compulsions are likely to determine the vigour and pace of reforms in the fertiliser sector.

Coke vs Pepsi

Domestic firms in India which once enjoyed the benefit of sheltered markets are increasingly facing competition from global giants in the 1990s. Whatever route Indian firms take to deal with competition from MNCs, it is imperative for them to keep track of global strategies of these firms. Often the strategies undertaken at the local level are only part of the global strategies, because it is difficult for any firm to allow significant differences in approach in different markets. After the second coming of the international varieties of Cola drinks, the market has witnessed a highprofile tussle between the global giants - Coca-Cola and PepsiCo. This tussle and the respective problems faced by the two firms in the Indian market are extremely instructive. This paper argues that the events in the Indian soft drinks market can only be explained with reference to the global fight between Coke and Pepsi and their respective global strategies. Moreover, these two firms are so dissimilar that their relative successes and failures can throw light on some of the important issues in industrial organisation.

TNC Operations in Developing Countries

Anindya Sen World Investment Report 1997: Transnational Corporations, Market Structure and Competition Policy, United Nations, New York and Geneva, 1997; distributed in India by Book well, Delhi; pp xxxv + 381, Rs 695.

Entry Strategies A Survey

Anindya Sen Entry strategies are the flip side of entry deterrence strategies. While existing firms would like to discourage entry, new firms are attracted into an industry precisely by the success of incumbents in keeping out competition and earning super-normal profits. It is shown in this paper that a prospective entrant can choose between various modes of entry. The entrant also has to decide on the scale of entry. While entry is a one-shot proposition, the process of entry itself and the various considerations that determine entry have dynamic connotations that can be ignored only at the peril of endangering the long-term viability of the new enterprise.

Maruti Udyog A Soured Relationship

Anindya Sen The open war between the two partners in Maruti Udyog has ramifications beyond the fortunes of a single enterprise. A joint venture combines several features at once. Its success depends on how the partners create effective mechanisms to utilise these features and ensure that they do not pose obstacles in the way of co-ordinated policy-making. In Maruti's case almost all these special features have created problems.

Microview of Industry

Industrial Concentration and Performance by Uma S Kambhampati; Oxford University Press, Delhi, 1996; pp xii + 212, Rs 395. THE industrial sector in most nations plays a major role in determining the rate and nature of growth. In India, organised industry in the private sector was for a long time strait-jacketed by the licensing regime. The macro-objectives of the successive plans were sought to be achieved through a system of licences, controls and incentives to the small- scale sector. In line with this 'macro- mindset', only sporadic investigations were carried out on the structure, conduct and performance of Indian industries This has led to a situation where macro-policies - even policies specifically targeted at the industrial sector have been formulated with very little knowledge of actual industry- level conditions.

Urban Growth and Its Consequences

in the field, serving as a political force as well as a model. In that coniext the experiences of the Gujarat and Maharashtra co-operatives and especially of Amul, which has consistently promoted the idea of independent co-operative movement, need to be acknowledged.

Demystifying Game Theory

Demystifying Game Theory Anindya Sen Game Theory and Economic Modelling by David M Kreps; Clarendon Press, Oxford, Rs 130. THE 1970s have seen the rediscovery of game theory and the marriage of game theory with the economics of uncertainty and information has given birth to a very large body of work. However, these developments in game theory have bypassed many academicians, even in the economics profession, and those who did not pick up game theory have remained deeply., suspicious of the theory. In recent years, a number of books on game theory have become available, as well as some quite useful chapters devoted to game theory in various books, like Tirole's The Theory of Industrial Organisation and the first volume of the Handbook of Industrial Organisation. But this material is usually accessible only to the technically sophisticated reader. Kreps has now written a book which attempts to provide the uninitiated with sufficient insights to make independent judgments on game theory. The book makes no prior technical demands on its reader, though it requires careful reading. Throughout the book, Kreps employs numerous examples to illustrate his points and sometimes give the reader a flavour of those arguments that cannot be developed fully within the limitations of the book. He takes pains to highlight both the achievements and failures of game theory. Since he has been at the forefront in the development of both concepts and applications, Kreps is in a unique position to come to the defence of game theory, and also act as the Devil's advocate.

Strategic Planning in Public Sector Companies-A Case Study of IBP

Companies A Case Study of IBP Neelanjana Mitra Anindya Sen Since the petroleum industry in India is in the public sector, and operates under an administered pricing regime, elements of co-operation would appear to predominate among the firms in this industry. However, strong elements of competition also prevail among the firms in the petroleum sector in India and necessitate strategic planning by them. In this paper, an attempt has been made to analyse the strategic planning process of a public sector firm in the oil industry, viz, IBP Company, which is small but possesses a uniquely diversified structure.
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