ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

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Bureaucracy as Instrument of Development

show the possibility of chaos. In contrast with the other papers in this collection which assume a fixed product wage in industry because of the mark-up pricing rule, they implicitly assume a fixed industrial price and a constant wage in terms of food. This implies that increased capital accumulation in the industrial sector increases the food price and the product wage, causing a profit squeeze. The current growth rate of the capital stock or accumulation rate is assumed to be an increasing function of last period's rate of profit on capital. These two relations give rise to a non-linear first order difference equation in the capital accumulation rate. This difference equation exhibits chaotic dynamics for certain parameter values. The authors argue that observed economic fluctuation in India could arise from such a deterministic system rather than from shocks. While this analysis is an interesting exercise, two aspects of the model seem questionable. The assumption that a rise in industrial demand squeezes profit margins sufficiently to reduce the rate of profit is not borne out by the evidence on mark-up pricing in Indian industry. Secondly, investment behaviour is backward looking, depending upon past profits rather than expected future returns. As a consequence firms can invest although they know (since there is no underlying uncertainty) that capacity will be unutilised. However, the general message is that chaos is an important issue, since it can arise in very simple dynamical systems. The question is whether economists can distinguish between chaotic systems and stochastic ones since the policy implications could be drastically different. Recent econometric research (Stengos, 1990) has put forward a test for discriminating between the two, so that the empirical relevance of chaos may be examined.

Pressures of Modernisation on Human Resource Orientation

Resource Orientation Anil Chaturvedi Abha Chaturvedi The process of modernisation of technology in Indian companies has generally been accompanied by an exuberance towards technological change and a willingness to experiment with newer approaches to the management of technological resources. These attitudinal shifts towards technology and technological change have not yet been directed, to any great measure, towards the human resources in our organisations. The result is that increasingly the people working with new technologies sense a contrast between the way they are being treated by their organisation and the manner in which the organisation treats technology. This perception of disparity is discernible in the signs of unease that are surfacing and manifesting themselves in the feelings of neglect and deprivation that workers often express. The real challenge of modernisation thus lies not in developing the ability to select, obtain and induct new skills and personnel but m reorienting the organisations ' attitudes towards their human element.

Inter-Departmental Dynamics-Relations between Four State Government Departments at the District Level

Relations between Four State Government Departments at the District Level Anil Chaturvedi An understanding of the dynamics that exist between organisations becomes a fruitful area of study because it assists not only in the development of inter-agency systems, structures, plans, and attitudes that promote cooperation and a sense of unified purpose, but also in examining a fundamental question, namely, whether such agencies should be created in the form in which they are or whether a different logic should be used in their creation.
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