ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

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THE ECONOMY-Modernisation of Export Production-A Proposal

That month must have been a period of agony and chastisement for him. Here he was, a messiah of the Telugu people, created specially by the gods to do noble deeds, forced to go around tending his fickle flock of 162 ML As, exhibiting them to all and sundry and pleading that they please count the number and tell whether it was not more than half of 294. People were writing erudite articles about the Constitution and the role of the governor, whereas as far as NTR could see, all that was needed was this little bit of arithmetic. But nobody would count them. Ram Lal, with the brazenness befitting an underworld operator, all but told him to go hell, and got him arrested by the police; Zail Singh was more polite but instead of counting the number merely promised elliptically that he would do his best to save democracy (leaving NTR to guess whether that meant he would be saved); and the suave and much-lettered Shankar Dayal Sharma, who replaced Ram Lal as governor of the state, pleaded for time and went to Tirupati to pray to the Lord. By this time NTR must have been a terribly frustrated man; here were 162 men and women, hard solid objective facts as any positivist could wish to see, and yet this slippery Brahmin at Raj Bhavan wanted the help of God to safeguard the Constitution and Democracy, whereas the most that he needed was an abacus to count them. This period of 'constitutional crisis' in Andhra was in reality a very hilarious period, to those who could see THE ECONOMY the humour of it. Here was the most democratic and secular Constitution of the Third World, which could be saved only by God and 162 purchasable MLAs who had to be guarded at a summer resort against their own temptation. In the end it was neither God nor the Constitution that saved NTR, but the violent and sustained popular reaction, which successful- ly kept the defections down to a minimum, and Indira Gandhi's opportunist handling of the situation. She has perhaps set a record in successfully playing a heads-I-win-tails-you-lose game.' NTR fell when she willed, and he did not rise again till she willed again

SILVER-How High the Sky and Why

SILVER How High the Sky and Why? Angus Hone THE post-Afghanistan surge which drove silver to an unprecedented high of 1900-2000 pence per oz in London and $ 43-46 per oz in New York and on Comex in Chicago is now over. Those who sold silver short at the $ 18-20 level have retired to lick their wounds and replenish their shattered bank balances, but the link with gold is now totally broken (people continued to look in vain for gold/oil ratios), but there is no theory which can satisfactorily explain the silver price explosion from $ 6-7 per oz in November/ December 1978 to $ 42 per oz in January 1980.

Economic Trends and Raw Material Prices in 1976

Prices in 1976 Angus Hone The initial expansion of the European economi es from the severely depressed levels of September 1975 to April 1976 will be slow, but all indications are that commodity prices and industrial raw material prices will rise considerably from September 1975 to January 1977.

Export Prospects for 1975-76

Export Prospects for 1975-76 Angus Hone ACTUAL exports far 1973-74 and the estimated figure for 1974-75 are given in Table 1. Actual exports are available from April-September 1974 and for many products for the period upto November-December 1974 (on a provisional basis). Finally the Trade Development Authority (Research and Analysis Division) has prepared estimates which should enable us to predict 1974- 75 export totals within a margin of plus or minus 3 per cent at this late stage of the fiscal year. Table 1 shows that 1974-75 has been a record year for Indian exports with excellent growth following rapid growth in 1973-74.

World Raw Material Shortage and Price Fluctuations, 1972-1974-How Should Industry Plan

Fluctuations, 1972-1974 How Should Industry Plan ? Angus Hone This paper discusses the following issues against the background of short-term and long-term corporate strategies and business planning:

PEPPER- Case for a Producers Agreement

 PEPPER Case for a Producers' Agreement Angus Hone PEPPER is likely to become subject to a producers' agreement within the next two or three years. The Asian Pepper Community of India, Malaysia, Indonesia and Sri Lanka has been established as a result of meetings in Bangkok at the end of 1973. These four countries account for 80 per cent of world production, as the following figures show :

World Raw Materials Trade-Trends and Forecast for 1974-1980

 In this manner, the scientific community would develop a national identity. PERIPHERAL SUGGESTIONS There appears to he am implicit assumption running through the entire hook that in India it is scientists who set the tone for science as a social activity. The fact of the elitist "top brass" cornering the choicest parts of the take and conversely creating the wretched working conditions of the majority of scientists, according to the author, stands in the way of science becoming a tool for social transformation. One may not object to improving the working conditions of scientists and their inclusion in debates on organisation and policy. But will these reforms by -themselves make Indian science dynamic and relevant to the country's problems? Will higher salaries make for greater consciousness among scientists who are a privileged class anyway in a country where economic and educational disparities are so pronounced? Democratisation of the scientific structure cannot by itself have any fundamental impact upon the direction of scientific activity in this country and its role in economic development For in the ultimate analysis who are the decision-makers and in whose interests are the decisions made? Ultimately are scientists autonomous or are they willy-nilly part of the industrial and/or government machinery as long as they are dependent upon private industry or the government for jobs? In an unchanged social frame, Rahman's suggestions can only be peripheral and in no way fundamental. It is only a change in social structure, when; science can play a more integrated and dynamic role, that can create the conditions for a socially relevant and purposeful scientific community. To bring about this transformation scientists alone arc not the agents. So fat- as scientists are concerned, the conditions for a more relevant role would be created when they along with other politicised and active sections of society become conscious of the futility of their activity in the present socio economic environment In the underdeveloped countries with their foreign-aided, "mixed-up" economies, where government does all the funding for scientific research, the social role of the scientist is far more significant than his professional role. When a scientist is able to analyse, understand and feel concerned about the nature of his society, he can reach out to other groups and work towards an egalitarian society where science will truly become a tool for a better life and where his research will acquire meaning.

Trade Balance and Balance of Payments in Fifth Plan-Growth Prospects, Capacity Constraints and Policies

The massive rise in import costs of oil and other essential raw materials projected for the Fifth Plan and the difficulties of securing compensatory official aid or loans makes the role of the export sector even more critical than in the past.

BANGLADESH-Political Economy of Reconstruction

not allow the people to be divided on the basis of religion and between communists and non-communists. All attempts at division must be fought against. By achieving national concord, they will create conditions to preserve peace and end war.

EXPORTS- Case for Export Turnover Subsidy

September 23, 1972 tual battles, but the continentalists won the war. Although the Trudeau government decided to reduce its troop commitments in Europe, it made no change of substance in its defence policy.

Growth of Residual Exports

two decades of planned industrialisation that industry now considers costs to be a matter of government responsibility. The 'cost-plus formula in price fixation has led managements to cease considering cost control as an area of their own professional operation. At the same; time, the effective protection from imports and the drive fur import- substitution have encouraged the view that indigenous goods must automatically get preference.

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