ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

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India in the World Economy, 1400-1750

Andre Gunder Frank World development between 1400 and 1800 reflects not Asia's weakness but its and particularly China's and India's economic strength and Europe's relative weakness in the global economy. For it was all these regions 'joint participation and place in the single but unequally structured and unevenly changing global economy that resulted also in changes in their relative positions in the world. The common global economic expansion since 1400 benefited the Asian centres earlier and more than it did Europe, Africa and the Americas. However, this very economic benefit turned into a growing absolute and relative disadvantage for one Asian region after another in the late 18th century. Production and trade began to atrophy as growing population and income and growing economic and social polarisation exerted pressure on resources, constrained effective demand at the bottom and increased the availability of cheap labour in Asia more than elsewhere in the world.

Soviet and East European Socialism-What Went Wrong And Who Is Right

Soviet and East European 'Socialism' What Went Wrong? And Who Is Right? Andre Gunder Frank What happened in the Soviet Union and eastern Europe simply cannot be understood or accounted for only or even primarily on the basis of their own internal' economy, policy and much less ideology. They were and are part and parcel of a single world economic system, and only a holistic analysis of this whole, which is more than the sum of its parts, can reveal much about any of its parts.

World Economic Crisis Once Again

Andre Gunder Frank The world economic crisis has pushed the weakest parts of the world economy (all quite independently of their supposedly different economic 'systems' and political ideologies) into a depression which is already deeper than that of the 1920s and

Privatisation Sham Debate

force in agricuhurc may no. always be an indicator of progress in this regard even in advanced economics. l.arge-seale farming in the United States and Europe has achieved high yield of crops through efficient practice. It has also brought in its wake the problem of violent fluctuation in prices and continuous squeezing out of sub marginal farms giving rise to despair among the younger people who have been deserting farmland to reach the industrial towns, The population in agriculture is aging. Recent experience in the erstwhile Soviet Union also shows the same trend. Questions are being asked about what kind of rural society should one look forward to. Paradoxically, the system is still dependent on a high level of subsidy to offer security of income to farmers to maintain it.

Economic Ironies in World Politics-A Sequel to Political Ironies in World Economy

A Sequel to Political Ironies in World Economy Andre Gunder Frank This essay shows how in the short run today world economic conditions limit the discretion of, and produce unintended consequences from, political policy. These economic conditions are largely beyond anyone's control, but they have far-reaching effects on apparently autonomous political policies and social movements around the world. Uncontrollable world economic constraints and exigencies ironically subvert well and not so well inten- tioned political action all around the world. Their combination results in unhappy consequences for the peoples of the world.

On the Silk Road-An Academic Travelogue

An 'Academic' Travelogue Andre Gunder Frank Today only bits and pieces of the Silk Road, which skirts the Taklamakan desert in China's Xinjiang region and was the circulatory system of Eurasian development for over 2,000 years remain extant. An UNESCO expedition to the Silk Road was part of an attempt to rediscover the complex system and understand "the peaceful paths of contact between east and west". A personal account of the desert expedition.

Political Economy of North-South Conflict in Gulf

Conflict in Gulf Andre Gunder Frank While the exceptionally strong American reaction against Iraq's invasion of Kuwait is, as in past similar instances, immediately related to economic needs and political conflicts at home, there are three major differences this time.

East European Revolution of 1989-Lessons for Democratic Social Movements (and Socialists)

money could also be used for introducing safety features like the laminated windshield in Maruti cars. Another possibility would be to substitute the Maruti 1000 body in the Maruti 800 and stop selling the old tiny model. The new Maruti 800 would be saier (being bigger) and roomier.

Europe from Helsinki to Finlandisation

they cannot live up to the rhetoric of the founding fathers, but to their own historical past. This was, after all, the land that produced ancient cities like Moenjodaro and the grandeur of empires like those of the Mauryas and the Mughals; the architectural and artistic wonders of the Ajanta caves, the Chola temples, the Shalimar gardens in Kashmir and the Taj Mahal in Agra.

Blocking the Black Debt Hole in the 1990s

in the 1990s Andre Gunder Frank Recession is threatening to accelerate the neo-mercantilist regionalisation of the world economy into American dollar, Japanese yen and German-led European ECU/D mark zones and trading blocs.

World Debt, the European Challenge and 1992

Challenge and 1992 Andre Gunder Frank The continuing world economic crisis, and particularly its expression through the still growing world debt crisis, offer new alternatives for Europe. These go beyond the oft-heralded unification of the European Community's Common Market in 1992. they pose the prospects for a more united Europe, east and west, north and south.

Gorbachev s United Nations and Peace Initiatives-Steps in the Right Direction

Peace Initiatives Steps in the Right Direction We are on the brink of an abyss. Let's take a big step forward? No, better take a bold step back! MIKHAIL GORBACHEV is addressing the United Nations on December 7, the first time for a Soviet leader to do so since Nikita Khrushchov banged his shoe there. However, Gorbachev has already taken several important UN initiatives. He made detailed concrete proposals to strengthen the UN, which were published in September 1987, but received little attention and are examined below. To put his money where his mouth is as the Americans say, he has paid up all Soviet arrears still owing to the UN (while the United States has so far failed to do so). His government has agreed for the first time to submit the Soviet Union to the jurisdiction of the UN International Court at The Hague (which the United States refuses to do in 'politicar cases, such as Nicaragua's unchallenged charge that the US mined its harbour). Gorbachev's diplomatic initiatives also facilitated last year's INF treaty between the USSR and the US and this year's successful UN and other peace initiatives to end foreign wars in Iraq-Iran, Afghanistan-USSR and Angola (and Cuba)-Namibia-South Africa, prompting the recent award of the Nobel Peace Prize to the UN forces. We may expect Gorbachev to use his UN address to press his proposals to strengthen the UN and perhaps to offer additional new initiatives beyond those examined below.

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