ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

Articles By Amit Basole

Structural Transformation and the Gender Earnings Gap in India

Much attention has been focused on the exit of women from the workforce during the high growth period post-2004. However, alongside this exit, the same period also saw a rapid increase in the proportion of salaried workers among those women who continued to remain in the workforce. Simultaneously, education levels have risen rapidly for both men and women. In this paper, we examine the long-run changes in the gender earnings gap among salaried workers in India. We draw on five rounds of the National Sample Survey Office quinquennial Employment–Unemployment Surveys and two rounds of the Periodic Labour Force Survey to show that the raw gender earnings gap has narrowed in this period. But most of this is due to a convergence between male and female earnings in the top two deciles of the earnings distribution. At the bottom, where the proportion of women workers has increased most rapidly, the gap remains high and has grown.

Did Employment Rise or Fall in India between 2011 and 2017?

The Periodic Labour Force Survey 2017­–18 data have created a controversy regarding the quantity of employment generated in the past few years in India. Estimates ranging from an absolute increase of 23 million to an absolute decline of 15.5 million have been published. In this paper, we show that some of the variations in estimates can be attributed to how populations are projected based on data from Census 2011. We estimate the change in employment using the cohort–component method of population projection. We show that for men, the total employment rose, but the increase fell far short of the increase in the working age population. For women, employment fell. The decline was concentrated among women engaged in part-time or occasional work in agriculture and construction.

 

Labour, Livelihoods, and Employment in the 2021–22 Union Budget

Coming in the midst of the immense damage inflicted on the Indian economy by the COVID-19 pandemic, the 2021–22 Union Budget needed to perform the unenviable task of compensating households for massive livelihood losses as well as stimulating economic growth while maintaining some fiscal discipline. As it turned out, the government chose to focus on the second and third goals and largely ignored the first.

 

Long-run Performance of the Organised Manufacturing Sector in India

The Indian manufacturing sector has not increased its share in output or employment along expected lines. The aggregate trends in this sector at the 3-digit level of the National Industrial Classification from 1983 to 2017 are investigated here. Using data from the Annual Survey of Industries obtained from theEPWRFITS, it identifies three sub-periods within the overall period: 1988–96, 1996–2006, and 2006–17. A shift-share decomposition is used to show that most of the decline in the labour to capital ratio can be explained by within-industry changes. Finally, industries are analysed with respect to their capacity to deliver job and wage growth.

What Does the Rural Economy Need?

The agricultural sector has performed worse than the other sectors over the years. The shares of non-agricultural employment and output have increased, while70% of agricultural householdscannot meet their low consumptionneeds even after diversification of sources of income. An analysis of budgetary provisions for the rural economy suggests that the government has not done enough to address some of these well-documented problems, and does not have the required vision to substantially increase rural employment opportunities.