ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

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New Economic Policy and Indian Federalism

In the existing financial and planning arrangements the new economic reforms cannot fructify. The basic question is: can a deregulated market-oriented economy blossom in a centralised federal polity?

The Sarkaria Commission s Perspective-An Appraisal

An Appraisal Amal Ray While the voluminous report of the Sarkaria Commission covers all areas of centre-state relations, the limited perspective seems to have denied a wider understanding of several critical issues. The recommendations, therefore, are unlikely to provide a firm basis for building a new consensus, reconciling the confliciting views on how India should be governed in her federal setting.

Zilla Parishad Presidents in Karnataka-Their Social Background and Implications for Development

The paper reports on the newly emergent leadership structure of the zilla parishads by focusing on the social background of the adhyakshas (presidents). The caste composition of the local government leadership does not seem to have significantly changed. The two dominant landowning castes, the Iingayats and the vokkaligas, dominate as in the past, while the non-dominant backward castes have been able to maintain their strength, however insignificant compared to their shares in the state's population. When, however, the totality of the resources which generally make up the political capacity of an adhyaksha is considered, the hold of the major castes in the governance of the zilla parishads is likely to be enormous. In the absence of the Janata government's will and ability to break the stranglehold of 'semi-feudalism' in the countryside of Karnataka, the newly created powerful system of democratic decentralisation is unlikely to create substantial gains for the rural poor.

Caste and Zilla Parishad Elections in Karnataka

generalising these averages to an enormously wider universe of all Indian villages may be quite invalid. This insensitivity to variation between villages echoes the urban educated Indian's view that 'a village is a village is a village'. Thus in the present version of their paper Bowonder et al tell us almost nothing about the individual villages apart from a few basic details in tables 1, 2 and 3. The data provided in other tables (which is the data crucial to the variables under discussion) pertain to the composite categories of villages with and without dairy development programmes. Table 18 stands out as an exception.

New Panchayati System in Karnataka-Elections and After

New Panchayati System in Karnataka Elections and After Amal Ray THE first-ever elections to zilla parishads and mandal panchayats in Karnataka, held in the month of January this year with an interval of 18 days, passed off fairly peacefully. The Congress(I)'s charge that the ruling Janata party indulged in extensive violence, rigging and other election malpractices is not supported by available evidence. The heavy voter turnout and the Con- gress(I)'s impressive show, moreover, seem to disprove such allegations. The amount of enthusiasm displayed by Karnataka's rural voters is remarkable. While the turnout in mandal panchayat elections was more than that in zilla parishad polls, the participation rate in both ranged between 60 per cent and 70 per cent of all eligible voters. However, it is difficult to say to what extent such mass enthusiasm will be translated by the new institutional leadership into positive action for intended rural development.

From Consensus to Confrontation-Federal Politics in India

Federal Politics in India Amal Ray The relative consensus that characterised Centre-state relations in the early yearsof independent India was due to some favourable historical factors, the most important of which were the continued balance between the role of the Congress as a national movement and as the ruling party, and a homo- geneous elite. Since the 1960s important changes have taken place in role of the Congress and elite composition. Their overall impact is that federal-state relations can no longer be viewed as a bargain- ing process.

Administrative Constraints on Rural Development-A Field View of Applied Nutrition Programme

Development A Field View of Applied Nutrition Programme Amal Ray Vanita Venkatasubhiah The UNICEF, while reviewing the performance of the ANP in 1980, stated that white conceptually the Master Plan of Operations in the Fifth Plan for the applied nutrition programme was related to needs and specific integration of basic services which are relevant and feasible locally, the comm itment and co-ordination required on the part of the implementation agency was not forthcoming.

Legitimacy Crisis in Centre-State Relations

IN India the Centre and the states have constitutionally delimited jurisdictions. But since India is a Union of states, the Centre has a certain primacy, especially in protecting the territorial integrity of the federal polity. There is nothing inherently wrong in endowing the Centre with an overriding power in times of national crisis when, as Ambedkar rightly pointed out, the residual loyalty of the citizens goes to the national government. This may be regarded as the 'safety valve' of a democratic, federal constitution. But India is a country of continental size and diversity, and the marked regional diversities are broadly based upon linguistic and cultural distinctiveness. Such wide local variations, frequently reinforced by hand of nature, would not normally admit of exact standardisations imposed from a single Centre.

Political Development and Constitutional Reform-Some Recent Trends

Reform Some Recent Trends Amal Ray Vanita Venkatasubbiah It is too early to foresee the impact of the return of the Congress(I) to power at the Centre on the issue of constitutionIal reform. Besides, while there has been much talk, no formal moves towards constitutional changes have yet been undertaken. But the various suggestions mooted by party leaders sources in this regard have triggered a debate both in party circles and amongst constitutional pundits on the nature and direction of constitutional reform. This paper discusses some of these issues.

Organisational Problems of Small Farmer Development Administration

Much of the benefits intended for small farmers has not reached them and programmes to aid them have been appropriated by the affluent sections of the peasantry. One of the causes for such a state of affairs might be that the existing administrative organisation is not structured to cater to the specific needs of small farmers and guard against manipulation by the rural rich.

Sub-Regional Politics and Elections in Orissa

policies of the government on the efficient operation of industry. Our finding on this subject is that high levels of effective protection have adversely affected the rate of capacity utilisation.


COALITION GOVERNMENT IN ORISSA Decision-Making and Change Amal Ray WHAT distinguishes the Swatantra- Jana Congress coalition in Orissa from similar experiments elsewhere in India is the absence of any major stalemate in its decision-making as well as its scrupulous observance of the rules of constitutional propriety. This is mainly because neither of the partners is committed to any militant ideology. The leading members of both the Swatantra and the Jana Congress have displayed an abundant measure of mutual tolerance and understanding. Both the Chief Minister and the Deputy Chief Minister told me that since the government was formed, they had not disagreed on any important issue. Again, both of them talked eloquently of their allegiance to the democratic Constitution of India, and the rules emanating therefrom. However, the stability of the government is currently at stake. The dominant section of the Jana Congress is openly annoyed over the lack of dynamism in the working of the government. Their chief spokesman, H K Mahatab, told me that the Swatantra-Jana Congress coalition is essentially a government of status quo, and emphasised the need for a dynamic government capable of bringing about a breakthrough in major areas. The Chief Minister, when asked to comment on Mahatab's allegation, admitted its partial truth, and said that his government was now trying to make up the deficiency in dynamism.

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