ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

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Geographical Epistemology and the Question of Space

Epistemological issues related to space, which form the core of disciplinary enquiry in geography, remain unresolved. In classical Marxian meta-theory, “space” is not assigned any meaningful role, but is treated as noise or a complicating factor. Many neo-Marxist and cultural geographers have also adopted an ambivalent stance towards the primacy of space in social theory. As such, the lack of a meta-theory, ineffective integration of theories from other social science disciplines, and an inadequate conception of “space” have resulted in the increased marginalisation of geography and geographers in the social sciences.

Regional Divergence and Inequalities in India

The question of regional development holds special significance for India, given that the regions are not entirely homogeneous. The high growth rate of the economy as a whole has not led to a similar growth pattern for its regions. An analysis on regional convergence across 15 major states in India suggests that there is divergence of the aggregate economy for the period 1970–71 to 2013–14. The findings therefore do not lend support to the expectations of the neoclassical convergence hypothesis according to which poor regions tend to catch up with the advanced regions in the long run leading to regional convergence.

Muslim Girls in Urdu Medium Schools of Maharashtra

A revolution is underway in the Muslim community with regard to girls' education. A larger number of Muslim girls is now enrolled in schools, than boys. However, education in Urdu medium, which is weakly linked with the state and market, signifi cantly affects aspirations among the girls. A substantial proportion of students from this community is found with "not clear or no aspirations." This may further compromise the socio-economic prospect of the community which is already at the margins.

Urdu and Urdu Medium Schools in Maharashtra

The State continues to support Urdu medium schools under the constitutional obligation to provide primary education in the child's mother tongue. However, those educated in Urdu find their employment prospects rather bleak. They are also unable to do well at the higher levels of education where the medium of instruction is often English. Since nearly 95% of the students in Urdu schools in Maharashtra belong to a deprived religious minority, it also adversely affects the community's overall representation in the public and private sectors.

Trade in the Creative Sector

Creative industries have become an important source of economic growth and international trade in recent years. India is one of the leading exporters of creative goods and services, and ranks fourth in terms of value of exports at the global level. However, the value of Indian exports is significantly lower than China's. Rising imports of creative goods and services to India also indicate an emerging and vibrant domestic market. However, unlike China, Brazil and the UK, India lacks an integrated policy framework for the creative sector. A coherent and informed policy could provide new opportunities to millions of traditional artisans and workers, and stimulate economic growth.

Climate Change in Himachal

Temperatures are rising in Kullu in Himachal Pradesh where farmers are dependent on the rains for agriculture. This article uses meteorological data to provide evidence of gradual climate change in the region that might affect livelihoods.

Ghettoisation, Crime and Punishment in Mumbai

The entrenchment of neoliberal policies and a deepening social and economic divide are the primary reasons for the exacerbation of crime and social conflict in cities such as Mumbai. The very same reasons work in the intensification of social divides through selective punishment of the weaker sections which are already facing the brunt of such policies.

Water Consumption Patterns in Domestic Households in Major Cities

Supply-led water deprivation prevails in major cities in India. The per capita water availability in these cities is nowhere near the standards laid down by the World Health Organisation or the Bureau of Indian Standards (1993), and it is also far lower than that in other large cities in the world. The availability of water in Indian cities varies with socio-economic groups and areas. Households with incomes below Rs 3,000 a month suffer a lot - about 72 per cent of such households in these cities lack sufficient water.

Regional Structures, Growth and Convergence of Income in Maharashtra

In the evolution of spatial economies, it may so happen that regions may converge at one "spatial scale" but can diverge at another scale, or there may be marked presence of "convergence clubs". This paper analyses sectoral and aggregate per capita incomes in Maharashtra over the period 1993-94 to 2002-03. In contrast to the trend of divergence at the interstate level, the regional economies in Maharashtra are converging, though with significant differences in the rates of convergence across various sectors and regions. Marathwada and Vidarbha, with weak industrial sectors, have been the most underdeveloped regions in the state over the years. The study also highlights the impact of "spatial spillovers" on regional patterns of economic development in the state and its policy implications.

Birth of a City

Birth of a City The Making of Navi Mumbai by Annapurna Shaw; Orient Longman, New Delhi, 2004; pp xv + 295, Rs 295 (paperback). ABDUL SHABAN Increasing rural-urban disparity in development in several countries is leading to migration of people from rural areas to urban centres. These urban centres have come to be regarded by rural masses as
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