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Style Sheet


Style Sheet

We request authors to follow the guidelines in the EPW style sheet as listed below. This will help reduce processing times of articles that have been accepted for publication.

House style

  • For the main text, use Times New Roman, 12 point, 1.5 line spacing.
  • For notes, use Times New Roman, 11 point, single line spacing. Set the alignment as "left".
  • Use British and "-ise" spellings (labour, centre, organise).
  • Use double quotation marks for quotations, and single marks for quotations within quotations.
  • Indent quotations of more than four lines, without quotation marks.
  • For quotations from other publications, always provide page number(s) for the quotation.


  • Abbreviations including those in in common use (BJP, US, BCCI, L&T), are spelled out at first occurrence, as in

Among recent recommendations of the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) are …

  • Less familiar ones should be used only if they occur more than once within an article, and the terms must be spelled out on their first occurrence, as in

The benefits of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act (ERISA) are familiar to many.

This includes omitting the periods used after initials standing for given names, as in G K Chesterton, J Krishnamurti.

  • No periods are used with abbreviations that appear in full capitals, whether two letters or more, as in BBC, CITU, and acronyms, as in Nasa, Nato.
  • The general guideline is no periods even with abbreviations that appear in lowercase letters, as in am, pm.
  • No space is left on either side of an ampersand used within an initialism. Avoid using ampersands in running text unless they are within initialisms such as R&D, Texas A&M.
  • While abbreviating academic degrees, the current trend is to omit all periods within them, as in PhD, BA.
  • Company names are best given in their full forms in running text, though such tags as Ltd and Inc may be omitted unless relevant to the context, as in Brooks Brothers was purchased and later resold by Marks and Spencer.
  • No periods are used after any of the International System of Units symbols for units, and the same symbols are used for both the singular and the plural, as in kg, cm, m.
  • Note that a unit of measurement used without a numeral should always be spelled out, even in scientific contexts, as in We took the measurements in kilometers.
  • void using abbreviations for two-word names as far as possible. Some may be unavoidable such as the US or UP, but where it is part of government/bureaucratic or journalistic usage such as PM, CM, DM, SC or HC do avoid abbreviations.


  • The numbers from one to nine must be spelled out while every number that is more than nine is written in numerals.
  • However, very large round numbers, especially sums of money, may be expressed by a mixture of numerals and spelled-out numbers, as in

The population of India is now 1.2 billion.

Crores/Lakhs versus Billion/Million

If large numbers have to be written out using numerals, when discussion values please follow the Indian numbering system when the discussion is on India:

Rs 11,22,35,567 (ie division in crores, lakhs and thousands), or Rs 11.22 crore.

Where other units are involved, authors could use the billion/metric system, even in discussion of India. However, the preference would be for the Indian system of crore/lakh:

2,34,000 hectares ( 2.34 lakh hectares)

Or 234,000 hectares

Where the discussion is of a non-Indian issue or the currencies are of non-Indian values, then the preference would be for the standard international system:

$ 34,234,000 or $34.234 billion

134,567,000 tonnes or 134.57 million tones

It is most important that authors do not switch from one system to another within the same article.

Lakh and crore for currency values and lakhs and crores in other units.

Please ensure that either the Indian terms (lakh, crore) or the Western ones (million, billion) are used consistently within an article.

Percentages are always given in numerals. Use the symbol % instead of the words per cent, as in Only 45% of the electorate voted.

Simple fractions are spelled out, as in She has read three-quarters of the book.

  • Years are always expressed in numerals unless they stand at the beginning of a sentence.
  • Decades are either spelled out (as long as the century is clear) and lowercased, or expressed in numerals, as in the 1980s and 1990s.
  • Dates should be in the form of 9 March 2007.

Use an en dash rather than a hyphen between numbers denoting pages and dates.


EPW prefers to be economical in the use of capitals.

  • Although proper names are capitalised, many words derived from or associated with proper names (brussels sprouts, board of trustees), as well as the names of significant offices (presidency, papacy) are lowercased.
  • Civil, military, religious, and professional titles are capitalised when they immediately precede a personal name, as in

Prime Minister Manmohan Singh said at the meeting that....

  • But titles are normally lowercased when following a name or used in place of a name, as in

The prime minister speaking at an informal meeting said...

  • Titles are normally lowercased when following a name or used in place of a name, as in In an interview, the prime minister said ...
  • Titles denoting civic or academic honours are capitalised when following a personal name, as in Lata Mangeshkar, Bharat Ratna.
  • The full names of legislative, deliberative, administrative, and judicial bodies, departments, bureaus, and offices, and often their short forms, are capitalised, as in the United Nations General Assembly, the Parliament of India, the Lok Sabha, the Ministry of Agriculture, the Supreme Court.
  • While the names of ethnic and national groups are capitalised (Aborgines, the Jews, the French), designations based loosely on colour (black people) and terms denoting socioeconomic classes or groups (the middle class) are lowercased.
  • All caste, tribe and community names to be capitalised.
  • The names of political groups or movements other than recognised parties are lowercased, anarchists, independents, communists, but the Communist Party of India.
  • The full names of associations, societies, unions, working groups, inquiry commissions, meetings, and conferences are capitalised, as in the International Olympic Committee,

the Indian Red Cross Society.

Tables, Figures

Headings should be placed above each table/figure and should follow this format:

Table 1. Asset Ownership by Household Category

Figure 5. Communication Flows

Notes and sources should be placed under each table/figure.

Column headings in tables should clearly define the data presented.

In-text citations

EPW uses the author-date system for citations.

  • Works cited in the text should read thus: (Brown 1992: 63-64); Lovell (1989, 1993).
  • For repeat citations: eg (ibid 75)
  • For groups of citations, order alphabetically and not chronologically, using a semi-colon to separate names: (Brown 1992; Gadgil and Guha 1994; Lovell 1989).
  • Use "et al" when citing a work by more than two authors, but list all the authors in the References (unless there are six authors or more).
  • To distinguish different works by the same author in the same year, use the letters a, b, c, etc., Besson (1993a, 1993b).


All works cited in the text (including sources for tables and figures) should be listed alphabetically under References, on a separate sheet of paper.

  • For multi-author works, invert the name of the first author only (Gadgil, M and R Guha).
  • Use (ed.) for one editor, and multiple editors.
  • When listing two or more works by one author, use --- (19xx), such as after Swann (1967), use --- (1974), etc, in chronologically ascending order…
  • Indicate (opening and closing) page numbers for articles in journals and for chapters in books.
  • Note that italics are used only for titles of books and names of journals. Double quotation marks are used for titles of journal articles, book chapters, dissertations, reports, working papers, unpublished material, etc.
  • For titles in a language other than English, provide an English translation in parentheses.
  • Use endnotes rather than footnotes.

The location of endnotes within the text should be indicated by superscript numbers.

For sources which have insufficient details to be included in the Reference, use endnotes (such as interviews, some media sources, some Internet sources).

See the following for style and punctuation in References.


  • Wordsworth, William (1967):Lyrical Ballads (London: Oxford University Press).
  • Watson, S and K Gibson, ed. (1995): Postmodern Cities and Spaces (London: Macmillan Press)

Contributions to books

  • Elson, D (1996): "Appraising Recent Developments in the World Market for Nimble Fingers" in Chhachhi and R Pittin(ed) Confronting State, Capital and Patriarchy (Basingstoke and London: Macmillan Press) 35–55.
  • Journal and other articles

Helleiner, Eric (2006): "Reinterpreting Bretton Woods: International Development and the Neglected Origins of Embedded Liberalism", Development and Change, 37(5): 943–67.

Poniewozik, James (2000): "TV Makes a Too-Close Call", Time 20 Nov: 70–71.

Conference papers

  • Doyle, Brian (2002): "Howling Like Dogs: Metaphorical Language in Psalm 59." Paper presented at the annual international meeting for the Society of Biblical Literature, Berlin, Germany, 19–22 June.

Unpublished dissertations and theses

  • Graban, Tarez Samra (2006): "Towards a Feminine Ironic: Understanding Irony in the Oppositional Discourse of Women from the Early Modern and Modern Periods," Dissertation, Purdue University.
  • Stolley, Karl (2002): "Towards a Conception of Religion as a Discursive Formation: Implications for Postmodern Composition Theory", PhD thesis, Madras University.

Online resources

Always indicate the date that the source was accessed, as online resources are frequently updated or removed.


Felluga, Dino(2003): Guide to Literary and Critical Theory, 28 November, Purdue University, Viewed on 10 May 2006 (http://www.cla.purdue.edu/english/theory).

Page on a website

"Caret." Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, 28 April 2006, Viewed on 10 May 2006 (http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Caret&oldid=157510440).

Article in a web magazine

Bernstein, Mark (2002): "10 Tips on Writing The Living Web." A List Apart: For People Who Make Websites. No 149 (16 Aug). Viewed on 4 May 2006 (http://alistapart.com/articles/ writeliving).