ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

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Promise of Punjabi Diaspora

The Punjabi diaspora is globally dispersed with dense transnational networks. With a long history, its modern incarnation coincides with the beginnings of the Punjabi Suba movement in the 1950s. Over 85% of the Punjabis are now concentrated in Europe and North America. Political turmoil in Punjab in the 1980s created a new conflict-generated diaspora, which has become highly active in both host-land and homeland affairs. The Punjab state government’s response to the promise of Punjabi diaspora’s homeland linkages has shifted from reluctant engagement to indifference and needs a fresh initiative.

Water Use Scenario in Punjab

In view of the complexity and sensitivity of the river water sharing conflicts between Punjab and Haryana, a serious review taking into account the current availability of the quantity of water is of utmost importance. The optimum use of water, especially for paddy irrigation, can save substantial amount of water. The two states need to give increased attention to sustainable use of water, even as they assert their claims over the river waters.

Internal Caste Cleavages among Dalits in Punjab

Punjab houses the highest number of Scheduled Castes in comparison with all other states in India. Despite the common nomenclature—SCs, Dalits are sharply divided into 39 castes. This caste heterogeneity impacts their upward social mobility and political mobilisation in multifarious ways.

Cropping Pattern in Punjab (1966–67 to 2014–15)

While rice and wheat occupied 90.1% of the area in Punjab and contributed 76.9% towards production in 2014–15, the combined area under other crops, which in 1966–67 was 54.54%, has decreased drastically to 9.87% in 2014–15. This changing cropping pattern is of key significance for the present state and future prospects of Punjab economy.

Punjab’s Drug Problem

Younger persons have been the worst sufferers of the illicit drugs trade in Punjab. Although contrabands have spread their tentacles in all parts, the scourge of drugs has been concentrated in certain localities, clusters, and villages. The demand for illicit drugs in Punjab is largely met from outside the state through a supply network controlled by the local, interstate, and international drug traffi ckers.

Punjab Politics

Punjab's political dynamics is characterised by a spectrum within which there is a movement from contesting identities resulting in confrontations to these identities, through mutual accommodations and forging coalitions. It is not a linear process; it also faces reversals back to confrontations, and then moves forward again to coalitions. The identities of religion, nation, language, class and caste have been particularly at play in this dynamic arena of Punjab politics.

Sustainability Crisis

In recent years, Punjab is attempting to move towards a more sustainable development trajectory, with a leading role in the bioenergy sector. This is a response to the deep sustainability crisis in the state, as a result of green revolution-based agrarian development strategy. This article attempts a critical evaluation of these bioenergy imperatives through a stakeholder perspective to analyse how far green energy can provide a sustainable energy future for the state.

Casteism amongst Punjabis in Britain

Despite clear evidence of caste-based discrimination, harassment and victimisation, Punjabis in Britain stand divided on identifying with the victims of casteism. In the context of legislative, religious and academic contestations on caste discrimination in Britain, this article argues for acknowledging casteism where it exists.

Evaluation of SAD–BJP Government (2007–17)

Regarding the performance of the Shiromani Akali Dal–Bharatiya Janata Party alliance government since February 2007, available trends suggest that there exists a gap between the claims made by the government and the actual work done. The perceptions of the people, based on empirical evidence and ground-level reality, suggest tough times ahead for the ruling alliance.

Economic Reforms and Manufacturing Sector Growth

Manufacturing output grew 7%–8% annually since 1991, with a marked improvement in the variety and quality of goods produced. Yet, its share in gross domestic product has practically stagnated, with a sharp rise in import intensity. Liberal (or market-friendly) policies were expected to boost labour intensive exports and industrial growth. Why did the manufacturing sector fail to realise these goals? It is widely believed that India needs to “complete” the reform agenda to realise its potential. Critically examining such a view, it is suggested that the long-term constraints on industrialisation perhaps lie in poor agricultural productivity and inadequate public infrastructure. Further, there is a need to re-imagine the role of the development state to realise goals, as the experience of all successful industrialising nations suggests.

Markets, Growth and Social Opportunity

Since 1991, there has been an acceleration of economic growth accompanied by a widening of the range of consumer goods produced, together with improvement in the quality of services available. Furthermore, the economy has passed through the longest period since 1947 without facing balance-of-payments stress. However, not all sectors of the economy have shown the same dynamism, with the performance of agriculture actually becoming a cause for concern. The unequal distribution of social opportunity has meant that this shortcoming has left a significant section of the population in a low-income trap. What underlies this outcome is examined and what is needed to correct the imbalance is proposed.

Economic Liberalisation in India

Even if adjustment and reform in 1991 were driven by economic compulsions, it was the political process that made these possible. However, liberalisation was shaped largely by the economic problems of the government rather than by the economic priorities of the people or by long-term development objectives. Thus, there were limitations in conception and design which have been subsequently validated by experience. Jobless growth, persistent poverty and rising inequality have mounted as problems since economic liberalisation began. And, 25 years later, four quiet crises confront the economy, in agriculture, infrastructure, industrialisation and education as constraints on the country’s future prospects. These problems must be resolved if economic growth has to be sustained and transformed into meaningful development. In this quest, India needs a developmental state for its market economy to improve the living conditions of her people.


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