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Special Articles

Economies of Violence

Petroleum in the Nigerian context has produced a combustible politics marked by violence. Rather than see oil-dependency as a source of predation or as a source of state military power, this paper explores how oil capitalism produces particular sorts of enclave economies and governable spaces characterised by violence and instability. While the biophysical qualities of oil matter in this analysis, so do the powers of transnational oil companies, the character of the 'the oil complex', and the ways in which oil as a territorially-based and nationalised commodity can become the basis for making claims.

Natural Resources and Capitalist Frontiers

The late 20th century saw the creation of new 'resource frontiers' in every corner of the world. Made possible by cold war militarisation of the third world and the growing power of corporate transnationalism, resource frontiers grew up where entrepreneurs and armies were able to disengage nature from its previous ecologies, making the natural resources that bureaucrats and generals could offer as corporate raw material. From a distance, these new resource frontiers appeared as the 'discovery' of global supplies in forests, tundras, coastal seas, or mountain fastnesses. Up close, they replaced existing systems of human access and livelihood and ecological dynamics of replenishment with the cultural apparatus of capitalist expansion. This essay explores the making of a resource frontier in the eastern part of South Kalimantan, Indonesia, in the 1990s.

Cultural Theory, Climate Change and Clumsiness

Cultural theory offers an approach for understanding and resolving the disputes that characterise environmental policy. Its fourfold typology of forms of social solidarity is able to make explicit the different social constructions of nature, physical and human, on which environmental debate is premised. This paper applies cultural theory to the 'policy stories' around climate change and makes the case for 'clumsy' institutional arrangements that forgo elegance to accommodate the diversity of social solidarities, harnessing contestation to constructive, if noisy, argumentation.

Who's in Charge?

The present era can be called the 'Age of Scientific Assessment'. Governments on both sides of the Atlantic, intergovernmental organisations, NGOs, and private firms have all increasingly resorted to a variety of techniques, such as probabilistic risk analysis, pollution dispersion models, urban planning models, traffic-flow models, dose-response curves, and so on, ostensibly to guide the prudent use of resources to generate social and welfare and, increasingly, the natural environment. At the same time that the span of technocratic assessment has expanded, there has been a disconcerting decline in electoral participation in many industrialised countries. This paper suggests that there is a direct link between these two phenomena. Critics suggest that the science informing such assessments should be subjected to effective democratic participation and control. Social scientists have responded to this situation by designing ingenious ways to reconcile the conflicting demands of technical competence in making scientific judgments with popular participation in assessment and decision-making processes. Such techniques individualise values and represent the challenge of democracy as that of aggregating individual preferences. The paper opens the question whether these techniques are really the solution or, perhaps, might be part of the problem? It suggests that an answer to this question requires a radical rethink of our ideas about the institutions of science, democracy, and resource management.

Situating Resource Struggles

To analyse resource conflict, this article proposes a conceptual framework which operates at two levels: a conceptualisation of power in terms of sovereignty, governmentality and politics; and a repertoire of terms (projects, practices, processes, positions) that enable the empirical examination of particular sites of struggle. The framework is applied to conflict over a national park in Sulawesi, Indonesia.

The Real Exchange Rate, Fiscal Deficits and Capital Flows

India should use the opportunity presented by high reserves and low domestic inflation to now fully open the capital account (with a proviso about borrowing in foreign currency), make the rupee fully convertible and allow it to float freely. For in a world of fluctuating capital flows it is impossible for the authorities to predict, let alone implement, the requisite movements in the nominal exchange rate required for a managed float. If this is done, none of the fears that the authorities seem to have about absorbing capital inflows would be realistic and India could very quickly raise its growth rate, which continues to be suppressed by the misalignment of the real exchange rate.

Violence and Political Culture

Violence, no matter in what name it is courted - tactic, expediency or compulsion - blurs the distinction between emancipatory and retrogressive, the Left and the Right. As a political method it functions on the principle of absolute dualism, permanent war between the good and the evil god and satan. The Ultra Left in Bihar began its career by following the violent path already taken by a number of individuals between 1967 and 1971. It picked up the argument of the 'inevitability of violence' involved in individualised cases of resistance and turned it into a 'party-line', a generalised political wisdom, into a social good. Not surprisingly, in the Ultra Left's extreme vision there was little space for self-criticism, doubts, ambivalence and thus for dialogue and democracy itself. Today the Ultra Left, unable to break the vicious circle of violence, is doomed to follow the politics of marginality.

Spatial Distribution of Rural Poverty

The spatial distribution of poverty in India has emerged as a matter of urgent concern in recent times. This paper presents evidence on the poverty experiences of 75 NSS regions for the quinquennial rounds of 1987-88, 1993-94 and 1999-2000. The results presented here facilitate easy identification of lagging areas on which anti-poverty policy must concentrate. The economic reforms programme has been unable to make any significant dent on the spatial distribution of expenditure poverty.

Through the Life Cycle of Children

This exploratory and illustrative study focuses on children, their family, larger community, the available education and health services in an effort to understand the causality and social processes that affect, partially or wholly, children's full participation in schooling. It explores the continuous and cumulative nature of social and economic exclusion that poor children face and the impact this has on their ability to complete primary schooling. Areas that could make a difference, the study suggests, are well-functioning schools with basic facilities and motivated teachers; an adequate pre-school education component within the ICDS programme; heightened public awareness of health and nutrition and equally importantly, strengthening of traditional community structures.

Dudekula Muslims of Andhra Pradesh

An ethnographic profile of Dudekula Muslims, a little known community in Andhra Pradesh finds that the community, converting to Islam generations ago, continued to follow old traditions for a long time earning harsh criticism from both religious communities. In recent years however, the younger generations have increasingly taken to adopting Islamic rituals, traditions, customs and manners in the hope of securing a higher social status.

Hindi Musalman: Vangujjar Transhumance in Uttaranchal

Vangujjars are traditionally buffalo keepers and claim to have been converted to Islam by Taimur and his followers. They are spread over the north and north-western Himalayas comprising parts of Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttaranchal. They live a precarious nomadic life following the teachings of Islam but continuing to practice Hindu customs including its social stratification.

Dynamics of Debt Accumulation in India

Accumulation of debt can be seen as the resultant of the balance between cumulated primary deficits and the cumulated weighted excess of growth over interest rate. Decomposing the change in the central governmentâ??s liabilities relative to GDP since 1951-52, it is seen that but for three recent years, the accretion to debt relative to GDP was due to the cumulated primary deficits. A significant part of the effect of the cumulated primary deficits could be absorbed in the sixties, seventies, and the nineties due to the excess of growth over interest rate. However, there were large unabsorbed parts in the fifties and the eighties. The cushion provided by the excess of growth over interest rate may not continue to be available for long. For three years, viz, 2000-01 to 2002-03, the interest rate exceeded the growth rate. This, together with the continuing primary deficits though at a reduced level, led to acceleration in the increase in the debt-GDP ratio in recent years. For stabilisation of the debt-GDP ratio at current or reduced levels, focus on primary balance becomes necessary.

Performance Agreements in US Government

A performance agreement is a document summarising the understanding between the US president and his cabinet secretary regarding the expected results and performance indicators for the concerned department. This article argues that performance agreements are an effective instrument for promoting a culture of accountability in the government and lauds the attempt by the US administration to introduce them systematically in the highest echelons of the government. However, due to technical flaws in their design, these instruments have proved to be ineffective. This experience provides valuable lessons for developing countries in search of effective instruments of accountability. A well-designed system of performance agreements can be a great instrument for transforming development goals into reality.

Poverty in India in the 1990s

This note corrects an inadvertent but key error in the authors' estimates of poverty for 1993-94 on the mixed reference period and presents the impact of the correction on the conclusions stated in their earlier papers. At the all-India level, except in respect of the number of urban poor, all the earlier results on the direction of change, namely, a clear and unambiguous decline in poverty in India in the 1990s, continue to hold good. However, the size of the decline in poverty between 1993-94 and 1999-2000, in terms of percentage change over the 1993-94 levels, is reduced by between 7 and 10 percentage points depending on the indicator and the population segment considered. Despite this, the average annual reduction in poverty was higher in the last six years of the 1990s than that recorded during the ten-and-a-half years preceding 1993-94.

Sensitising Grass Roots Leadership on Health Issues

In 1998 a pilot training project to orient panchayat members on health issues took off in Karnataka's Chitradurga district. The â??experiment' received wide acclaim, as the methodology employed was participatory and post-training evaluation revealed higher levels of awareness and self-confidence in local participants in the programme. This paper analyses how a follow-up training project was developed soon after to create awareness on reproductive and child health issues using the medium of television. Informal channels such as television proved effective in initiating important attitudinal and behavioural changes at grass roots level, where a majority of people may have had little formal education.

Democratisation of Indian Muslims

The upper class/caste Indian Muslim leadership has historically and consciously focused on the politics of identity, centred on a few cultural-emotive issues - a process that by its very nature has stymied attempts towards democratisation within the community. As a critical appraisal reveals, such attempts only serve to perpetuate the domination of a minuscule elite who present such grievances as issues held in common by a 'uniform monolithic' Muslim community. In reality, the Muslim community remains diversified, fragmented and as caste-ridden as any other community.

A Different Jihad

This article discusses the issue of caste, in the context of the backward Muslim communities of Bihar elucidated in Ali Anwar's book, and the complete marginalisation of the groups at the bottom of the pecking order. The book, by focusing on the plight of backward and dalit Muslims, has the potential to redefine the very grammar of Muslim politics in favour of a progressive agenda, thus moving away from the now-prevalent reactive politics.

Social Structure, OBCs and Muslims

Although the Muslims in India form a single religious community sharing basic Islamic precepts, they do not form a 'community' in anthropolitical/sociological terms. They are differentiated into various groups and sub-groups along ethnic, social and cultural lines and are organised in a stratified social order. Only in recent years have various marginalised Muslim groups begun to struggle for empowerment and self-development. The nature of their struggle has created a complex situation under the pluri-cultural set-up of the Indian nation state.

Islam, Social Stratification and Empowerment of Muslim OBCs

This paper looks at the issue of social stratification among Muslims of north India from a historical perspective. It identifies caste as a system of such social stratification and compares the social and economic backwardness of Muslim OBCs with other OBCs. The article suggests separate reservations for Muslim OBCs within the existing reserved quota, as a means to achieve equality and social justice.

Muslim Kinship in Dravidian Milieu

This study explores the institutions of kinship and marriage in a Karnataka Muslim community. In this region though Muslims retain their separate identity by following their own customs and practices, using their own language and maintaining strict endogamy and commensal restrictions, there is clear tendency on their part to fall in line with the local dominant non-Muslim socio-cultural practices.

Problems of Identification of Muslim OBCs in West Bengal

The classification and categorisation of OBCs in general and Muslim OBCs in particular is not a simple task. The variations in criteria for identification of OBCs reflect the absence of a uniform basis of backwardness. West Bengalâ??s list of Muslim OBCs has several loopholes, due to which certain select communities have managed to gain maximum benefits, leaving many others disadvantaged. Therefore, more ethnographic information about the communities is needed for proper categorisation of backward clas

Long-Term Population Projections for Major States, 1991-2101

The authors decompose the prospective population growth in 16 major states between 1991 and 2101 into three components to estimate the contribution of each of them individually. The decomposition of population growth in different states seeks to estimate the impact of growth momentum built into the age distribution of population and the share of prospective growth attributable to (a) the unmet need for family planning and (b) high wanted fertility.

Economic Globalisation and Its Advance

Economic globalisation has made tremendous strides in recent decades as evidenced in the huge expansion in world exports, vast FDI flows and transnationalisation of production, among other factors. The first wave of globalisation was witnessed on a massive scale in the 19th century. However, there are several parameters distinctive to the contemporary process of globalisation, making it the kind of deep integration that was not seen in the previous period.

Is Caste System Intrinsic to Hinduism?

This paper, citing evidence from the ancient scriptures, attempts to establish that Hinduism - its vedic and classic variants - did not support the caste system; it rigorously opposed it in practice and principle. Even after the emergence of the caste system, Hindu society still saw considerable occupational and social mobility. Moreover, Hinduism created legends to impress on the popular mind the invalidity of the caste system - a fact further reinforced by the constant efflorescence of reform movements throughout history. The caste system survived in spite of this because of factors that ranged from the socio-economic to the ecological, which helped sustain and preserve balance among communities in a non-modern world.

Globalisation Traumas and New Social Imaginary

Without being able to identify with either the upper castes or the lower castes on caste questions, or with left ideologies or rightist forces on the political front the visvakarma community of traditional artisans in Kerala aimlessly wanders from one shelter to another. The changes that are taking place in the self-identity of this community buffeted by new economic forces provide a clue to the process of reformulation of community identities by middle caste groups in recent times.

Land Degradation in India

In several regions of India, especially the arid and semi-arid regions, environmental degradation is nearing irreversible levels even as replacement costs continue to rise. Land degradation occurs mainly in the form of water-induced soil erosion, though agrochemical and wind erosion have also made an impact. This paper seeks to measure the extent of damage due to land degradation of various types and their expected trends in the future. Besides examining trends in land-use pattern across states and estimating the extent and costs of degradation, it also explores the linkages between degradation and policy and institutional environment in the context of agro-climatic regional planning.

Relative Profitability from Production and Trade

Based on the results of a two-year market survey, this paper studies the phenomenon of low prices received by potato farmers in West Bengal even as traders make huge profits. The paper argues that the differential profit earned by producers and traders, especially large traders, is due to the informational advantage enjoyed by the latter and suggests the formation of small sellers' cooperatives to ensure proper flow of information.

Future of Mid-Day Meals

Spurred by a recent Supreme Court order, many Indian states have introduced cooked mid-day meals in primary schools. This article reports the findings of a recent survey which suggests that this initiative could have a major impact on child nutrition, school attendance and social equity. However, quality issues need urgent attention if mid-day meal programmes are to realise their full potential. Universal and nutritious mid-day meals would be a significant step towards the realisation of the right to food.

Marine Fish Production in Karnataka

This paper attempts to assess the long-term trend in marine fish production in Karnataka using two different growth functions and analyses the changes in species composition during the past three decades. It argues that not only has there been a falling trend in production but also a change in species composition resulting in the decline of hitherto commercially important fish as well as those consumed by local communities. It suggests that this decline is not just a seasonal fluctuation but an indication of fish famine in terms of both production and accessibility.

Trade Policy, Agricultural Growth and Rural Poor

This paper attempts to examine (i) how changes in trade policy introduced during the nineties have influenced the domestic inter-sectoral terms of trade, being the mechanism through which the impact of macro policies such as monetary, exchange rate and trade are transmitted to the agricultural sector; (ii) the impact of terms of trade and trade policy among others on aggregate crop output and private investment in agriculture over the period; (iii) whether trade policy and devaluation of rupee among others have helped in raising agricultural exports; and (iv) how the aggregate crop output and terms of trade have influenced rural poverty and real agricultural wages of unskilled workers over the period.

Truth about Hunger and Disease in Mumbai

This paper measures the incidence of malnourishment among under-five children in slums in Mumbai and compares it to the incidence in Jawhar tehsil of Thane district known for high levels of malnourishment. Severe malnourishment is found to be higher in Mumbai than in Jawhar. A connection is postulated between characteristics of urban informal labour markets, specially for women's labour, and the high observed incidence of malnutrition among children. The paper discusses policy mixes for minimising the incidence of malnutrition in this population. A policy that combines income improvement with greater public health facilities and legislation is most likely to succeed in Mumbai. The existing policy of 'slum re-development', if not combined with these other policies, will only induce cosmetic changes and solve the 'problem' of slums only from the point of view of the non-slum population.

Mantras of Anti-Brahmanism

Opposing factions in the Orientalist-Anglicist controversy in the 19th century shared a common understanding of Indian religion and society. Europeans from diverse ideological and religious backgrounds identified the brahmins as priests and brahmanism as a 'religion of the priest'â??. This common understanding derived its consistency from a Christian understanding of religion. Even the writings of Rammohun Roy and Babasaheb Ambedkar, this article suggests, reveal an unconditional acceptance of Europe's conceptualisation in a debate over religion that continued into the 20th century.

Investment in Oilseeds Research in India

This paper seeks to estimate the investment in oilseeds research in India and analyse the changes in funding for research over time, both sourcewise and cropwise, especially since the launch of the Technology Mission on Oilseeds in the mid-1980s. The trend so far indicates a need to redefine priorities in future allocation of resources, to focus more on crops such as groundnut and soyabean for greater profitability and generation of surpluses.

Poverty and Inequality

The relationship between poverty and inequality is neither clear nor direct. Poverty and inequality are analytically distinct concepts. They vary independently of each other, and it is misleading beyond a point to treat the one as a marker of the other. The study of both poverty and inequality has been closely associated with an interest in economic and social change. But poverty and inequality do not change at the same pace, and they may even change in opposite directions. It is difficult to make any meaningful statement about the relationship between the two without specifying which conception of poverty and which aspect of inequality one has in mind.

Migration of Labour

Past migrations took place in a relatively open world. Since the second world war continual obstructions have appeared in the free movement of people; ironically these have coincided in a period of increasing globalisation and closer interdependence between nations. Although the numbers of people moving internationally remain quite small, nations, as in the case of many in the European Union, are becoming increasingly protectionist - a policy that excludes certain immigrants in the name of defence or to safeguard 'national' identity. However, recent years have shown that the old migratory regime is crumbling. This allows an unprecedented opportunity to open the debate about the alternatives that might replace the present unsatisfactory order. Governments, as this article suggests, may set in place several transitional arrangements that while recognising free migration and the need for open borders, would also develop suitable regulation for employment of native-born workers versus the foreign-born.

Who Owns Traditional Knowledge?

The protection of traditional knowledge is one of the major issues addressed in WTO negotiations. The question assumes significance because traditional knowledge consists of information in the public domain as well as trade secrets; novelty thresholds of patent laws of countries differ greatly and are notoriously low in countries where the pharmaceutical industry is strongest; and, patentability under TRIPS does not require prior informed consent of countries or communities from where organic and informational resources are procured.

Politics and Economics of Property Taxation

This paper attempts to analyse the role of property tax as a source of local revenue in India, particularly in the wake of the decentralisation initiative through the constitutional amendment of 1992. It studies the property tax reforms launched by some of the urban local bodies with the objective of improving their capacity to generate revenue, and analyses the financial implications of these reforms. The paper argues that there is a need for assessment of property tax based on factors that reflect the city's economic activities. The ability of the property owners to pay also needs to be taken into account.

Undertaking Emission Reduction Projects

The ratification of the Kyoto Protocol will pave the way for developed countries to embark on emissions trading by setting up emission reduction projects in developing nations, which do not have emission reduction commitments. This article studies the potential costs, risks and returns involved in such projects and looks at the advantages of setting up large projects.

India's Growth Chase

This article critically evaluates India's growth 'stoppers' and growth 'boosters' and finds that both are exaggerated. The analysis is intended to provoke debate on what India needs to do to make 'growth happen'. India is a unique example of political democracy without economic democracy. However, more than the form of democracy the real constraint on growth is its bad practice. Thus, improved governance is the key to achieving sustainable growth and better living standards.

Married Adolescent Girls

The adolescent agenda and the concept of adolescence originated in western cultures; for a long time, moreover, the nature of adolescent sexuality centred on the behaviour of unmarried sexually active adolescents. It is time that the adolescent agenda is widened to include the concerns of a hitherto neglected section -married adolescent girls, especially those from the developing world. While alarming pressures on their sexuality and fertility have just begun to be noticed, concerns about their social condition, their universe are just beginning to be unveiled. Addressing these concerns needs a multi-pronged approach that include implementation of laws that delay marriage and help build skills for a better life; community-based interventions that ensure social support and also the development of HIV/STI prevention strategies specific to meeting the needs of this vulnerable section.

Survival of the Girl Child

Results of the first population census of the millennium reveal a number of significant changes in the sex ratio patterns in the country. Firstly, the sex ratio decline among children in the 0-6 age group turns out to be sharper in the urban areas (32 points) than in the rural. Second, the traditional north-south divide stands significantly modified and the 'northernisation' of sex ratios is rapidly taking the urban route. The sharp decline in the urban female/male (f/m) ratios among children cannot be explained away by any of the three popular escape hatches of yesteryears, i e, migration, undercount or biologically ordained high sex ratios at birth. This decline clearly points to one factor, sex selective abortion or female foeticide that has gained currency during the 1980s and more sharply in the 1990s.

Persistent Daughter Disadvantage

This paper examines trends and estimated sex ratio at birth (SRB) for India and child mortality (q5) risk, 1981 and 1991, and discusses how the 2001 Census results are foreshadowed. Earlier state-level (rural vs urban) analyses are extended to present these data at the district level in the form of maps. Multivariate statistical analyses exploring social and economic covariates that affect the likelihood of gender bias in death (female disadvantage in child mortality risk) have been conducted. The female disadvantage is evident in birth and death spread over India in the decade 1981-1991. Though infant and child mortality levels fell for girls and boys, gender differences persisted, and penetrated the hitherto egalitarian south. Masculine SRB that were seen only in urban areas of the north-west in 1981 have spread to urban areas of many northern states in 1991. Multivariate analyses suggest that between 1981- 1991, women's status variables become less associated with reduced gender bias. Modernisation variables suggest less association with gender bias, or that a substitution of pre-natal for post-natal elimination of unwanted daughters may be occurring. These findings are situated in the literature on gender, education, paid work participation, and marriage system changes in India.

Sexual and Reproductive Health Needs of Married Adolescent Girls

This paper collates available evidence on the situation of married adolescent girls and also sheds light on ways their sexual and reproductive health situation and choices differ from adult women. Findings strongly argue for measures that delay marriage and recognise the special vulnerabilities of married adolescent females. There is a need to raise awareness among girls, parents, teachers and community leaders, but more importantly, there is also a need to hold the government accountable for enforcing the legal age of marriage for girls. Further programmes to enhance married girls' autonomy within their marital homes and those that encourage education and generate livelihood opportunities need to be simultaneously developed.

Effects of Financial Globalisation on Developing Countries

The main purpose of this paper is to provide an assessment of empirical evidence on the effects of financial globalisation for developing economies, focusing on three related questions: (i) does financial globalisation promote economic growth in developing countries? (ii) what is its impact on macroeconomic volatility in these countries? and (iii) what are the factors that appear to help harness the benefits of financial globalisation?

Muslims and Others

Against the intensified communalisation of civil society and the emergence of new modes of racism in contemporary India, this essay juxtaposes different histories of the Other through critical insights into the construction and demonisation of the Indian Muslim, along with subaltern performers and indigenous people, among other minorities. Working through anecdotes and fragments, bits and pieces of history, and the backstage life of theatre, this disjunctive discourse on the Other attempts to trouble liberal assumptions of cultural identity by calling attention to the uncertainties of evidence by which ethnic identities are politicised in diverse ways. While critiquing the exclusionary mode of 'othering' minorities, the essay also calls attention to more internalised modes of disidentification and the double-edged benefits of political identity for the underprivileged and dispossessed, whose own assertions of the self invariably complicate official identitarian constructions.

Liquidity Measures as Monetary Policy Instruments

The Reserve Bank has in the last few years pursued active open market operation as an indirect instrument of monetary policy. The Liquidity Adjustment Facility (LAF) which was introduced on June 5, 2000 is going to play a central role in RBI's liquidity management operations. The concepts of discretionary (DL) and autonomus (AL) liquidity measures make LAF a powerful instrument of monetary policy. The two-way causation between discretionary liquidity and the call money rate, which is a prime representative indicator of availability of liquidity in the system, clearly supports the use of DL and AL in the framework of the multiple indicator approach. Also worth noting in this context is the robust link between AL, DL and the monetary condition index.

Poverty by Price Indices

This paper examines in detail the premises used in the basic methodology of the Planning Commission to define poverty lines in India. The logistics of the use of available data are examined with a view to making estimation of poverty transparent, while using data at a disaggregate level. The paper sets out a method of estimating poverty on the basis of price indices that takes care of issues of transparency, individuality of states and the link between consumption levels and prices of basic commodities. Such a structure can lead to a better understanding of the poverty scenario in each state. It also highlights the paradox of rising real income and declining nutritional intake in many states.

Does the Right to Food Matter?

Contrary to assertions that the right to food is both 'undefinable' and 'undeliverable', an attempt is made here to clarify its nature and content, and the obligations it entails. The right to food is a right to policies (or, is a right to a right) that enable individuals to produce or acquire minimum food entitlements. From this perspective, it is evolving into an enforceable right. Its potential for channelling food aid from donors more effectively, enabling governments to do what they should, and sharpening the focus of NGOs in a strategy to eliminate hunger, malnutrition and famines is likely to be substantial. While the realisation of this right is slow and difficult, it would be a mistake to discard it on the ground that too many rights make it harder to enforce them.

Gandhi, the Philosopher

Gandhi's thought and his ideas about specific political strategies in specific contexts flowed from ideas that were very remote from politics; instead they flowed from and were integrated to the most abstract epistemological and methodological commitments. The quality of his thought has sometimes been lost because of the other images Gandhi evolves - a shrewd politician and a deeply spiritual figure. Gandhi's view of moral sense, his denial of the assumed connection between moral sense and moral judgment, is of considerable philosophical interest and in his writings, take on a fascinating theoretical consolidation. In Gandhiâ??s highly 'integrating' suggestion, as this paper suggests, there is no true non-violence until criticism is removed from the scope of moral; the ideal of non-violence is thus part of a moral position in which moral principles, which lead us to criticise others, are eschewed.

Regional Disparity in Economic and Human Development in India

This paper examines the trends in regional disparity in India's economic and human development over the past two decades, and the direction of their causality. The Indian regional data suggest a two-way causality between human and economic development. The paper argues that the Planning Commission and the finance commissions need not be unduly concerned about regional imbalance in human or economic development. Emphasis on economic growth is likely to address the issue of disparities in income and human development speedily.