ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

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Do Producers Gain from Selling Milk?

Primary field-level information collected shows that producing milk for sale is not always profitable and suggests that despite the white revolution, milk production still remains largely a subsistence activity. There are, however, large variations in milk price, animal stock, and profit among regions; urbanisation levels of districts; and main occupations of producers. The results also reveal that the producer’s remuneration varies with the uses of different marketing channels. While informal traders still dominate the market, the sign of entry of private corporate buyers is also clear. The findings raise serious concerns about the commercial prospects of dairy farmers, especially in the eastern region and among the labouring classes and others who practise dairy as a subsidiary economic activity.

Underlying Drivers of India’s Potential Growth

Global growth is expected to be tepid in the medium term and India will have to depend on domestic growth drivers. In order to better understand the future, a new methodological framework is proposed to estimate potential growth in India with a focus on capacity output till 2029–30. The domestic savings rate was identified as the most potent growth-augmenting driver.

World Bank’s Poverty Enumeration

The end of the period set out to achieve the United Nations Millennium Development Goals triggered off numerous studies on global poverty. Most notable was the paper by Ferreira et al (2015), which can be considered as the (unofficial) view of the World Bank. We subject this particular paper to critical scrutiny and find that the Bank’s poverty enumeration exercise fails to satisfy the requirements of transparency, denies researchers access to data, and replicability of the poverty numbers produced by the Bank. We have provided evidence of non-robustness of the poverty estimates by using different purchasing power parities. A simpler method for estimating PPPs that avoids the complex and expensive procedure adopted by the World Bank-led International Comparison Program has also been proposed.

Farmers Need More Help to Adapt to Climate Change

This study addresses an issue that has been widely discussed among policymakers—farmers’ perception of climate change and their adaptation to it. Information collected from medium, small and marginal farmers in eastern Uttar Pradesh is compared with climatic and agricultural data. The results reveal that farmers are aware of long-term changes in the weather pattern and change their practices to deal with socio-economic changes. Yet, most of them do not see these changes as constituting what academics refer to as “climate change.”

Empowering Women Parshads in Dehradun Municipal Council

The need for capacity building of municipal councillors, particularly women, is well established. This article outlines an approach to “empowering” women municipal councillors by expanding their possibilities for “self-becoming.” Drawing upon empirical research on the lived experiences of women parshads (municipal councillors) in Dehradun, Uttarakhand, it suggests a series of interventions that correspond to particular needs and opportunities at different stages of their term. Theories of social change and the literature on adult pedagogy further inform the design of effective learning opportunities.

Autopic Imperial Eyes

Ideological and social practices are interconnected and politically constitute each other. This article takes an interdisciplinary approach to investigate how historians and literary scholars have discussed the intersections of exploration, colonisation, language and race during early European imperial expeditions. It examines the construction of racial “otherness,” in terms of religion, and community; through early European explorations and through the lens of gender. It also underscores the role of language as a tool for imperial domination and assesses the idea of linguistic colonialism by situating Shakespeare as a translator of the racial divide and scrutinising his representations of characters in two of his most popular dramas The Tempest and Othello.

Breaking the Chaturvarna System of Languages

The Indian language policy is informed by a pull towards unilingual identity, inspired by the European model of nation state that is predicated on the homogeneity of its people. Language hegemony works at two tiers in India—at the state and the centre. The Constitution fails to pay more than lip service to the linguistic plurality and multilingual ethos of the peoples of India and has created a chaturvarna (four-tier order) of languages, with Sanskrit, Hindi, the scheduled, and the non-scheduled languages occupying various rungs of the ladder. English—the language of the conquerors—being outside the chaturvarna system has emancipatory potential.

Caste Membership, Business Access, and Social Mobility among Indian Apparel Manufacturers

This article focuses on the role of community in industrial clusters and examines social networks among small and medium-sized enterprises in Tiruppur, a centre for the production of cotton knitwear, and Ludhiana, known for the production of woollen knitwear. This survey of Tiruppur and Ludhiana reveals that credibility is more important than community. Factory workers could become owners in Ludhiana, and non-Gounders—who are part of the cotton knitwear production in Tiruppur and persons outside Ludhiana’s merchant community—could start micro factories as subcontractors. Vertical cooperation is functioning across communities in both places. The social networks did not exclude other communities. Easy entry has provided opportunities to young people to start business in both clusters. The social networks function beyond community and caste.

Rise of the New Middle Class in India and Its Changing Structure

After being largely stable between 1999–2000 and 2004–05, the new middle class in India (that is, those spending between $2 and $10 per capita per day) doubled in size between 2004–05 and 2011–12, amounting to nearly half of India’s population. This growth, though largely in the lower middle class category, happened across a majority of states in both rural and urban areas. Structurally, the new middle class is quite different from the conventional understanding of it. Although dominated by upper castes, other caste groups too have entered the new middle class in large numbers. The occupational structure within the class is heterogeneous. The lower middle class is engaged in occupations similar to that of the poor, whereas the upper middle class is involved in traditional service activities as well as in new knowledge services.

Sexual Harassment at Workplace

This exploratory research attempts to understand the occurrence and dynamics of sexual harassment of women managers at workplace. While the number of sexual harassment cases is staggering, little is known about the experience that women go through when their personal space and dignity is violated. It seeks to explore how women manage such behaviour meted out to them, what kind of policies and processes do organisations have for protecting them from being sexually harmed, and whether the enactment of a law is adequ ate in safeguarding their interest and reputation. It also draws attention to practices instituted by some organisations that are proactive and gender sensitive.

Tamil Nadu Migration Survey 2015

Tamil Nadu is considered a mobile society because its people have a history of migration and a significant diaspora presence in 17 countries across the world. In spite of high mobility being recurrent in Tamil Nadu, there is a lack of comprehensive studies on this theme. The Tamil Nadu Migration Survey 2015 is the first attempt to study the demographic, social, and economic characteristics of migrants, return migrants, outmigrants, and return outmigrants in the state, remittances received, cost of migration, and the problems they face abroad. TMS 2015 is a broad replication of previously conducted Kerala Migration Surveys.

Lives in Debt

A study in two districts recording high numbers of farmer suicide—Yavatmal in Maharashtra and Sangrur in Punjab—explores the tipping point for this desperate act and finds that in addition to the shame of indebtedness, especially when borrowing from members of the family, several other factors contribute to farmer suicides. These include faulty cropping patterns, rising input costs, aspirational consumption, and the absence of non-farm sources of income.

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