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Special Articles

Political Architecture of India's Technology System for Solar Energy

This essay makes a case for embedding the analysis of institutions for technological change in an understanding of the politics of markets. In turn, this needs knowledge of institutions and of their relations. The first stage that is needed to explain the retarded development of apparently appropriate solar energy technology in India is developed; and the implications for technology theory, analysis and policy are outlined. India's technology system was created precociously early to facilitate research and development. Technology is available. It is not obstructed by intellectual property rights so much as by the structure of domestic energy subsidies and support measures, the risk aversion of banks and the coordination failures of the system of market- and state-institutions for renewable energy technology. As a result, the state is seriously hampered from acting in the long-term public interest. In general, policy reform may require institutional destruction as well as creation, adaptation and persistence.

Writing 'Realism' in Bombay Cinema: Tracing the Figure of the 'Urdu Writer' through Khoya Khoya Chand

In the years following independence, Bombay's popular films sought to create a unified, seamless nation where ruptures like Partition were made invisible and the hero figure remained Hindu and upper caste. Realism remained at the margins of this celluloid text since it did not fit this dominant discourse. Urdu writers, many of them Muslims, who were often part of the leftist progressive writers' movement, questioned these seamless narratives. This paper tries to reopen the history of realism in Bombay's popular cinema by exploring the role of the Urdu writer of this period by engaging with a recent film, Khoya Khoya Chand and its protagonist who appears to have been moulded on Saadat Hasan Manto.

Regional Sources of Growth Acceleration in India

Gujarat, West Bengal, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Kerala and Tamil Nadu were the major contributors to the growth acceleration in India after 1991-92. Although regional disparity may increase temporarily, the causality test provides support to the hypothesis about spread effects. The regional growth targets assigned by the Eleventh Plan in India seem to rely on the spread effects of economic growth acceleration in the better-off states to achieve its 9% growth target and reduce regional disparity in the long run. To strengthen the spread effects, the domestic economy should be further integrated and interlinked with free flow of goods, services and factors of production.

Does Not India Need a Default Option in the New Pension System?

Pension reform modules that take care of the changing demographic profile of a population have put forth a number of suggestions. The accepted defined benefit pension system, which was the broader goal of a welfare state, is slowly giving way to the defined contribution system where risk is borne by the final beneficiaries. This paper, bringing out the many shortcomings of the New Pension System in India, examines the need to include the default option in the scheme. The default option is a necessity to make the dc system more acceptable and successful. A number of countries have this option but not India. A model portfolio is also proposed.

Is India Becoming More Innovative since 1991? Some Disquieting Features

India is variously described as a knowledge-based economy in the making, thanks essentially due to her high economic growth and the role played by knowledge-intensive sectors such as information technology in spurring and maintaining this growth performance. This paper looks at the empirical evidence on whether this is indeed the case since the reform process began in 1991. A variety of conventional indicators are analysed and their movements over the last two decades or so are charted to draw some firm conclusions. The results show that instances of innovation are restricted to a few areas such as the pharmaceutical industry. Further, increasingly most of the innovations in industry are contributed by foreign firms operating in the country.

Rethinking India's Coal-Power Technology Trajectory

The key challenges faced by the coal-power sector in India - significantly enhancing generation to meet the needs of a growing economy and to increase energy access while looking ahead at the climate mitigation issue - require a rethink of the country's coal-power technology trajectory. An explicitly "bifurcated" technology strategy, wherein using imported coal with high-efficiency global technologies (adapted to Indian operating conditions), will serve as a complement to the existing pathway of adapting such technologies for Indian coals. A successful deal between Annex I countries and India for increase in coal imports and expanding technological options may set a model for constructive North-South collaboration on climate change.

A Climate Agreement beyond 2012

As the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol comes to a close in 2012, the world faces another decision point at the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change meeting in Copenhagen in December. It is clear that total world emissions of greenhouse gases need to decrease sometime during the coming decade, and fall sharply thereafter, if we are to avoid disastrous and irreversible climate change. While industrialised countries generally emit much more per capita than developing countries, some of the latter have per capita emissions approaching the world average. This paper proposes that these advanced developing countries take on commitments to limit future emissions increase to improvements in the gross domestic product or, better yet, the Human Development Index, noting that some countries have achieved much more emission-efficient development than others. Recognising differences in the accuracy of greenhouse gas emissions accounting, we propose separate treatment for energy-related co2 emissions, forestry, agriculture, and fluorinated gases.

Holistic Engineering and Hydro-Diplomacy in the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna Basin

The worldwide paradigm shift in river basin management has not affected policymakers in south Asia. Hydro-diplomacy in the Ganges-Brahmaputra- Meghna basin is still based on reductionist engineering, and looks at marginal economic benefits, without showing any concern for the long-run implications for livelihoods and ecosystem. The governments in the river basin are already facing the challenge of extreme poverty, despite the countries experiencing high levels of precipitation. This paper discusses the lacunae of the reductionist engineering paradigm, and stresses the need for a holistic framework in ecological engineering and for hydro-diplomacy in the basin. This framework is based on a new transdisciplinary knowledge base created by the emerging science of eco-hydrology, economics, and new institutional theories.

Michael Madhusudan Datta and the Marxist Understanding of the Real Renaissance in Bengal

Michael Madhusudan Datta who began writing in Bengali, when he realised the "impossibility of being European", was not, in fact, ahead of his time, but very much of it. Madhusudan had, till 1940, been feted by middle class Bengalis across the spectrum as a legendary poet. However, the brilliant aura around him began to be muddied by critics whose modernist provenance was an even more powerful impulse than the Marxist. This paper recontextualises strategies of reading and representation, which change historically in response to evolving and shifting cultural paradigms. It shows how readings of a particular writer or a period are orchestrated through a multiplicity of exchanges in politically charged situations. It neither redeems Madhusudan nor resurrects the idea of the Bengal Renaissance.

Civil Society in Conflict Cities

A vibrant civil society is one of the essential preconditions of democracy, but it can fulfil its mandate only when the preconditions for its existence have been met. This demands shared engagement in political struggle and social interaction in shared neighbourhoods. This paper seeks explanations for the failure of civil society in Ahmedabad, which has experienced many riots in the past, to raise a collective voice of protest against deliberate acts of violence by the State, and also in battling undemocratic groups within its own sphere. A historical exploration of the segmentation of residential spaces in the city and its subsequent intensification has led to a weakening of the scope of civil society engagement. However, the translation of prejudice, discrimination and communal sentiments into brutal acts of violence demanded a trigger - provided by the Sangh parivar, which came to command state politics since the mid-1990s, and has rendered the civil society helpless.

Examining the Decoupling Hypothesis for India

This paper examines the decoupling hypothesis for India. It analyses business cycle synchronisation between India and a set of industrial economies, particularly the United States, over the period 1992 to 2008. The evidence suggests that the Indian business cycle exhibits increasing co-movement with business cycles in industrial economies over this period. Indian business cycle synchronisation is stronger with industrial countries as a whole as opposed to the co-movement found with the us.

Coal Mining and Rural Livelihoods: Case of the Ib Valley Coalfield, Orissa

This study analyses the diverse positive and negative impacts that coal mining has on the livelihoods of local communities of the Ib valley coalfield in Orissa. Using the sustainable livelihoods framework, it shows that coal mining, which is a form of physical capital, contributes to the enhancement of financial capital. It has a mixed impact on physical and social capital and a negative impact on human and natural capital. In this situation while the benefits seem to be for the short term, the costs are borne over the long run.

D D Kosambi: The Historian as Writer

This essay looks at D D Kosambi as a historian steeped in things literary, and the ways in which Kosambi's literary sensibility influenced the subjects, the structure, and the character of his history writing. Why should a reader who is interested in Indian writing in English read Kosambi? What would he find in his writings that he is unlikely to find in the historical writings of his contemporaries? How do his narratives reveal his interests, whose range extended far beyond the narrow specialisation of "Ancient India"? How did Marxism develop and hinder his insights and his writings? These are some questions that the essay tries to answer. It examines Kosambi's work and life together. Many elements of Kosambi's life figure in his historical works, and help in giving material substance to his writings.

Women Workers and Perceptions of the National Rural Employment Guarantee Act

The National Rural Employment Guarantee Act, which entitles rural households to 100 days of casual employment on public works at the statutory minimum wage, contains special provisions to ensure full participation of women. This paper, based on fieldwork in six states in 2008, examines the socio-economic consequences of the nrega for women workers. In spite of the drawbacks in the implementation of the legislation, significant benefits have already started accruing to women through better access to local employment, at minimum wages, with relatively decent and safe work conditions. The paper also discusses barriers to women's participation.

Changing Contours of Capital Flows to India

The Indian experience with capital flows during the period 1950s to the first decade of this century reveals a paradigm shift from a prolonged period of capital scarcity to one of surplus, however characterised by a volatile pattern of inflows. The key structural aspects include a significant shift from official to private capital flows and from debt to non-debt flows. Non-resident Indian deposits show considerable sensitivity to interest and exchange rate fluctuations. The corporate preference for overseas borrowings is predominantly influenced by domestic activity; but the persistence of interest rate arbitrage and global credit market shocks also have a significant impact. Foreign institutional investment inflows and stock prices have a bidirectional causal relationship with a time varying nature of the stock price volatility. Volatile capital flows rather than trade flows seem to drive real exchange rate movements with consequences for the real economy.

How Much 'Carbon Space' Do We Have? Physical Constraints on India's Climate Policy and Its Implications

It is necessary to determine the role of various nations, including India, China and the other major developing countries in keeping the total atmospheric stock of greenhouse gases below 450 ppm (carbon dioxide equivalent) which, in turn, would provide a 50% probability of keeping the global temperature increase below 2°c. An analysis of future emissions of co2 in Annex I countries, large developing nations and other nations is done using a gams-based emission model. This analysis underlines sharply the historical responsibility of the developed nations for global warming and their duty to cut emissions drastically to mitigate climate change. Also large developing nations like China and India also need to contribute strongly to mitigation. It is argued that this necessity makes evident that carbon offsets will act as "double burden" on developing nations, as also a major disincentive to innovation in critical migration technologies in the industrialised world. The analysis implies that India needs an alternative climate policy that recognises proactive action for climate change mitigation while ensuring that the developed nations do not pass on their burden to the global South, which would otherwise seriously

Corporate Governance of State-Owned Enterprises: The Case of BSNL

A missing element in the reform process in India is the restructuring of the incumbent state-controlled monopoly operator prior to or simultaneously with the opening up of the sector to competition. This places the state-owned operator at a serious disadvantage relative to competitors. This has been the case with Air India/ Indian Airlines with adverse consequences. This paper argues that Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited/Mahanagar Telephone Nigam Limited may be headed in the same direction. The restructuring of the state-owned enterprises must begin at the top with a complete reorientation of the corporate governance mechanism which establishes the relationship between the government and the enterprise. With the growth of private operators in these sectors the state-owned enterprises are no longer of strategic importance to the government for sector development or providing "universal service". To the extent privatisation is not feasible or desirable at least in the short run, the corporate governance mechanism should be designed around the objective of growth and efficiency as in the case of private enterprises.

Kerala's Education System: From Inclusion to Exclusion?

The paper examines the recent shifts in Kerala's education system from an inclusive to an exclusive one. The pendulum seems to be swinging from one extreme to the other, from a highly subsidised and a largely state-sponsored and state-supported system to a mostly self-financing system, a euphemism for a student-financed commercial system. This paper examines the economic, social and political forces that led to this shift, almost tectonic in scale. It also examines the long-term consequences of such a shift to Kerala's economy and society.

Disability Law in India: Paradigm Shift or Evolving Discourse?

The inclusion of disability as a subject matter of law and policy is a relatively recent development in India. An analysis of some landmark judgments delivered by the appellate courts between 1996 and 2007 under the Persons with Disabilities (Equal Opportunities, Protection of Rights and Full Participation) Act highlights the central characteristics of disability jurisprudence. This analysis provides an insight into the violations faced by persons with disabilities and the nature of litigation coming under the disability laws. It draws attention to the changing understandings of the notions of disability and personhood in society.

Deepening Health Insecurity in India: Evidence from National Sample Surveys since 1980s

Drawing on evidence from the past morbidity and health surveys (1986-87 to 2004) and consumer expenditure surveys (1993-94 to 2004-05) of the National Sample Survey Organisation, this paper argues that public provisions of healthcare in India has dwindled to new lows. Outpatient and hospitalisation care in India in the past 20 years has declined drastically, leading to the emergence of private care players in a predominant way. While healthcare costs have shot up manifold in private provisioning, government health facilities are increasingly compelling patients to look for private outlets for procuring drugs and diagnostics. Due to these developments, millions of households are incurring catastrophic payments and are being pushed below poverty lines every year.

Amchya Jalmachi Chittarkatha (The Bioscope of Our Lives): Who Is My Ally?

This paper questions the commonly-held view by mainstream feminists and some dalit men that dalit women are somehow more "liberated" than high caste women. I argue that dalit women also face patriarchal oppression, though it has a specific quality. Under such circumstances, who is a dalit woman's ally? The essay focuses on the penumbra of debilitating circumstances, which call for a further understanding of the particular context of dalit femininity and oppressed sexuality.

Shooting the Sun: A Study of Death and Protest in Manipur

Contemporary Manipur is often treated by scholars as a war zone and a state under siege. But that situation cannot be understood only by alluding to the militarisation of Manipur or by viewing it as a struggle among ethnic groups over resources. The power to let live and take life defines sovereignty not only for the state but also for insurgent groups aspiring for statehood. An analysis of Manipur's present condition should not deny intelligibility to the social life of the people. It is necessary to understand how people deal with the multiple forms in which death visits them every so often and how they try to exorcise the violence in their midst.

China and India: Idiosyncratic Paths to High Growth

If the Chinese economy had failed, mainstream economics would have described this as completely predictable, given the extent and nature of involvement of the Chinese state in the functioning of markets and the economy. The fact that China has succeeded therefore should lead us to question our textbook doctrines of development. Much of this paper is presented as a comparative study of India, China and, briefly, other Asian nations. It is shown that the mainsprings of development in these nations are widely different, even though their trajectories of growth are converging. The paper argues that social and political priming plays a major role in determining which economic policies will work. In the case of China, while the liberalisation from 1978 onwards was important, the social preconditioning achieved during the high-noon of the Maoist period, up to 1978, was no less significant. In judging the sustainability of growth in Asia it is essential to keep these social and political factors in mind.

A Conspicuous Absence: Teaching and Research on India in Pakistan

A detailed survey in Pakistan of social science research and teaching on India shows that there is a conspicuous silence on India in Pakistan's research and teaching institutions. The little research that is done is skewed in favour of strategic and defence studies. Even books and research emanating from India are not part of the curricula. Among the reasons for this dismal state are constraints of ideology, politics, state paranoia and lack of infrastructure. This absence of research and teaching on India also reflects the generally poor state of social sciences in Pakistan. The article ends by questioning the lack of social science interest in India on Pakistan.

Phenomenology of Untouchability

This paper explores the philosophical foundations of untouchability through an analysis of the phenomenology of "touch". The sense of touch is unique in many ways; one such is the essential relation between touch and "untouch". Drawing on both Indian and western traditions, the paper begins by analysing the meaning of touch and then goes on to explore some meanings of "untouchable". It then concludes by pointing out the importance of untouchability within the brahmin tradition and attempts to understand the process of supplementation which makes untouchability a positive virtue for the brahmins and a negative fact for the dalits.

Archaeology of Untouchability

Untouchability as a dynamic reality is bound to produce experience which is always in excess of its description. Hence, the available description is often inadequate to capture the totality of the meaning of the experience. To capture the full experience of untouchability, one requires to invoke other perspectives and methods. This paper argues that at the moment there could be two such frameworks - the philosophical and the archaeological - that could open to us much richer and nuanced meanings of the phenomenon of untouchability.

Persistence of Fiscal Irresponsibility: Looking Deeper into Provisions of the FRBM Act

While the 2009-10 budget was branded as a lacklustre budget, there seems to be near consensus that it rightly pushed aside the issue of fiscal rules, as growth is the top-most priority at this moment and all else can follow. This paper argues that even if we were to accept this position, the direction and structure of expenditures since the passage of the Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management Act has been far from "responsible" even when macro caps were being met. The structure of expenditure allocations in the 2009-10 budget appears to be inadequate for a "fiscal stimulus". The time is thus opportune to chalk out a set of "Second Generation Fiscal Rules", which will address the inadequacies that have surfaced during the four-year experience with fiscal rules at the central government level. Prioritising these second generation rules - thus following the gradualist approach - and strengthening enforcement via greater power to the Comptroller and Auditor General, which could play the role of a Fiscal Council, would facilitate greater success of the new rules.

Climate Crisis? The Politics of Emergency Framing

Groups opposing climate change have been springing up in many countries, constituting a climate change movement. Several writers and movement leaders argue that climate change is an emergency that requires urgent action by governments to bring the problem under control. However, framing climate change as an emergency has several potential disadvantages. It may implicitly prioritise climate change over other important social issues. It can orient the movement towards government-led solutions rather than build popular support for long-term efforts. Finally, emergency framing may be counterproductive: it can disempower citizens because the problem seems too big, whereas providing practical opportunities for action is a better long-term approach.

Revisiting 1947 through Popular Cinema: A Comparative Study of India and Pakistan

The memorialisation of the Partition of the Indian subcontinent in 1947 through popular cinema is the theme of this paper. Both in India and Pakistan, cinema as a cultural production wields immense influence in the lives of the people and mainstream cinema has been deeply affected by Partition. By offering the potential for public mourning in a public space such as a theatre, cinema confronts the trauma of that cataclysmic event and Partition cinema in particular invests heavily in the private sphere of emotions and familial relations while also demonstrating that the private domain is already political.

Social Support for Hunter-gatherers: Care or Curse?

This paper tries to understand, from an emic perspective, the different dimensions of social support among the Cholanaickan, a hunter-gatherer community of Kerala. It tries to understand why the support system extended by the state has ended as being perceived as a "curse" rather than as "care". Their experience with the social support extended to them by the welfare state especially in housing is not congenial to their emotional system. The most useful form of support is one which is mediated and internalised within a peoples' existing social support systems. The paper argues for a more responsible and responsive approach from the welfare state.

Grameen and Microcredit: A Tale of Corporate Success

The Grameen Bank's microcredit programme has been recognised internationally as a successful model. This model has become an integral part of development thinking and has earned global attention as a new form of banking. But it has been hailed more as an effective tool for alleviating poverty and empowering women. To find out if this is correct, gb's publications and studies were analysed, its declared objectives were scrutinised, and international experiments of the model were also studied. The findings from inside and outside Bangladesh contradict the current myth around the model. The model created a good opportunity for expanding the market for finance capital, thereby ensuring gb's spectacular success. However, it failed as a tool for poverty alleviation and empowerment of women.

The Changing Face of India's External Trade

India's trade profile has undergone significant changes in recent years. Engineering products have come to the fore, leading our export effort. Imports have meanwhile risen sharply to service the needs of a growing economy. The direction of trade is also changing with more exchanges taking place with developing countries. This paper looks at these changes from the turn of this decade and examines broadly how we may approach the potential growth areas in the future.

Fiscal Space for Achieving the Millennium Development Goals and Implementing the Tenth Plan in Bhutan

The paper addresses the issue of financing the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals in a sustainable manner in a small, low income and landlocked country, the example being Bhutan. The analysis shows that although mdg financing is nested within the plan outlay, significant efforts will be needed to ensure adequate resources for financing the plan and smoothening the wide year-to-year fluctuations in revenues and expenditure flows. The paper explores the availability of additional fiscal space using the fiscal diamond framework to identify policy and institutional reforms needed for raising revenues from tax and non-tax sources, improving productivity from public spending through reprioritisation, accessing external grants and borrowing from domestic and foreign sources.

Nuclear Lives: Uranium Mining, Indigenous Peoples, and Development in India

India's nuclear programme has suffered from a shortage of uranium. As elsewhere in the world, the main uranium deposits are located on lands belonging to indigenous or tribal peoples. This paper discusses the unfolding controversy relating to uranium mining in the West Khasi Hills of Meghalaya. The government-owned Uranium Corporation of India has for long been trying to get access to the deposits of uranium, but has failed due to local opposition. During the past two years the government has stepped up its efforts to allow mining in Meghalaya and seeks to win over local people with promises of development. Although a reasonable proposition for some, there is also a strong opposition to this, usually citing either health reasons or issues having to do with ethnic sovereignty and indigenous rights. Allowing uranium mining, it is argued, would lead to the loss of indigenous lands and open the region to a large-scale influx of non-tribal people.

Trade Liberalisation and Labour Demand Elasticity in Indian Manufacturing

The hypothesis that trade liberalisation raises labour demand elasticity is tested for Indian industries, and inter-temporal changes in the elasticity during 1973-74 to 2003-04 are analysed. Econometric results indicate that trade liberalisation in India had a positive effect on the labour demand elasticity. However, the estimated elasticity for the post-reform period (1991 onwards) is found to be lower than that for the pre-reform period. A closer examination reveals a marked upward trend in the labour demand elasticity after the mid-1990s, which seems attributable, among other factors, to trade liberalisation, weakening of trade union bargaining power and labour market reforms.

Do Stock Markets Allocate Resources Efficiently? An Examination of Initial Public Offerings

This paper examines the pricing of Initial Public Offerings in relation to their future operating performance and risk. ipo firms have lower profitability but receive higher valuation than their industry peers on the expectation that their earnings will grow in the future. The expectation of superior growth is not realised in the post-issue period. It thus appears that low profitability firms conduct ipos when investors are excessively optimistic about their growth potential. The paper concludes that stock markets in India have suffered from excessive optimism and poor evaluation.

Urban Transport Policy as if People and the Environment Mattered: Pedestrian Accessibility the First Step

The rapid growth in motor vehicle ownership and activity in India is causing a wide range of serious health, environmental, socio-economic, and resource use impacts, even as it provides mobility to millions, and contributes to employment and the economy. The loss of accessibility for pedestrians is one of the most important of these negative impacts, which remains neglected by policy. Urban transport planning is fundamentally about moral and political choices - about what kind of cities we want for ourselves and our future generations, whether urban space is primarily for people or motor vehicles, and what we owe each other. While motor vehicles play a vitally important role, as do planning and infrastructure for them, and technological measures to mitigate their impacts, an urban transport policy that focuses on these measures to the exclusion of infrastructure for walking and other non-motorised modes is likely to prove futile, even counter-productive. There is, therefore, an urgent need for an integrated approach that addresses multiple impacts, caters to multiple modes and road users, and is sensitive to the needs, capabilities and constraints in the Indian context.

Piped Water Supply to Greater Bangalore: Putting the Cart before the Horse?

Cities in India are moving towards commercially viable models of urban water and sanitation delivery to fill the widening gap between demand and supply. Cost recovery through upfront beneficiary contributions is increasingly becoming a key consideration in the provision of piped water and sewerage. This paper examines the Greater Bangalore Water and Sanitation Project, a project that aims to extend piped water from the Cauvery to over two million residents in peri-urban Bangalore. The paper critically evaluates the project and makes four interlinked arguments: (1) Upfront payments from citizens have not guaranteed timely and satisfactory service. (2) The project's financial model is disconnected from actually existing settlement and urbanisation patterns, thus delaying water delivery and undermining accountability. (3) The project's highly centralised decision-making process has resulted in low political buy-in and public acceptance. (4) Modifications to the original financial model have been crucial in sustaining credibility and getting the project off the ground.

What Does the Recent Indian Consumption Behaviour Tell?

The paper presents alternative estimates of poverty lines and head count ratios for India and its states and union territories, not only with respect to the fixed all-India calorie norm, but also by considering the state-specific benchmarks. These alternative estimates are found to be much higher than the official estimates. Given the extent of divergence of such a large magnitude, it is high time to revisit the methodological issues of estimation of poverty lines and head count ratios.

Corporate Retail: Dangerous Implications for India's Economy

Rather than being a panacea for Indian agriculture, corporate food provision will likely accelerate many key elements of India's agricultural crisis. It will produce a decline in land productivity, reduce food security, adversely affect price stability and will tend to negatively impact employment and credit relations. This paper explores the changes in class and social relations that come about with the transition to a corporate system of food provisioning. It considers the potential impacts of such changes in the Indian context.

Regulation of Retail: Comparative Experience

India perhaps has the highest retail density in the world. Economies of scale drive the retail sector towards rapid growth in terms of size of outlets and dominance in geographical and product markets, posing challenges for preservation of genuine competition. Growth in size also has consequences for manufacturers, wholesalers and dealers in the supply chain who face a loss of alternative marketing/retail outlets as monopolies emerge. The growth of large format retail raises serious issues for the urban environment and town planning in dense and rapidly urbanising countries like India. The need for intelligent regulation, therefore, cannot be overemphasised.

Intellectual Property Rights: Excluding Other Rights of Other People

This article interrogates the claims of intellectual property to be a right. Drawing on the political theory of rights, it argues that information, ideas and knowledge fail to meet the basic test of rights and intellectual property right prevents those who do not own it from accessing and exercising their own diverse rights. Thus, it violates the very idea of individual autonomy on which it bases its claims. The article further looks at the contested areas of traditional knowledge, farmers' rights and health rights to illustrate the unsolved contradiction intellectual property rights poses to the liberal doctrine of rights.

Gandhi and the Standardisation of Gujarati

The process of linguistic standardisation usually sets up one dialect as the yardstick to judge the correctness of a language. It not only relegates other dialects to the periphery but also actively produces and reproduces structures of inequalities. Gandhi initiated a systematic effort to standardise the Gujarati language in the 1920s through the Gujarat Vidyapith which published a dictionary with a set of rules for correct Gujarati writing. It is this form of Gujarati that has been recognised by the state government as the standard language. This article explores the notion of language standardisation and the inherent inequalities within that process, the context of Gujarati standardisation, Gandhi's role in it, and the problems and contestations involved in the linguistic standardisation in Gujarat.

Government Spending on Public Goods: Evidence on Growth and Poverty

Using panel data from 14 Indian states between 1990 and 2002, this paper empirically examines how the share of government spending on public goods such as health, education and basic infrastructure affects per capita gross domestic product growth and poverty reduction at the state level. Consistent with similar studies based on national-level data sets, the findings from this study show that the share of public goods expenditures in total government spending has a large, positive and significant impact on per capita gdp growth, and that the share of spending on social public goods such as education and health contributes significantly to poverty reduction. Especially, reallocation of expenditures to raise the share of public goods spending could on average increase per capita gdp growth rate by up to 2.7 percentage points, and reallocation of funds to increase the share of social public goods expenditures could on average reduce poverty headcount index by up to 6.6 percentage points.

Rabindranath's Gora and the Intractable Problem of Indian Patriotism

For various reasons, in modern India, patriotism has found it very hard to establish a convincing locus for itself. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Indian patriotism was projected as Hindu nationalism. Rabindranath Tagore's Gora, published in 1909 in the immediate aftermath of the anti-partition Swadeshi movement of 1903-08, overcomes the ethnocentricities that led to such a distortion, but, in it, the particular comes too close to the universal - patriotism dissolves into love for all the helpless peoples of the world, offering a radically new way of being an Indian patriot.

Production of the South: Incongruities and Loss of Meaning

The half century after the second world war was marked by the division of the world into North and South, with the latter often taking on the politically charged selfidentification of third world. This was paralleled by the divisions of "civilised" and "barbarian" and of development and poverty. This article argues that such division of geopolitical space is no longer valid and there has been a dissolution and blurring of lines which identified one with the other. Through a review of different countries in the South, this article shows how both objective criteria and self-identification often do not follow the North-South binary. Rather, there is now a "South" in the developed world while solvent consumers of the South are increasingly indistinguishable from the North.

Fertility Decline in India: Contributions by Uneducated Women Using Contraception

India's fertility transition is driven by major fertility declines among women who are illiterate. Consequently, the earlier emphasis on women's education and socio-economic conditions as determinants of fertility decline is shifting to research on the study of reciprocally initiated positive contributions of fertility decline to the improvement of the health of women and children. This analysis indicates that illiterate women and their children are the greatest recipients of the benefits of health and socio-economic advancement. The standardised percentages of women without education who received three antenatal care check-ups and whose children received full immunisation are sharply higher for women with two children and less than for those with more than two children. Child mortality reductions for women of lower parities are steeply higher for uneducated women compared with educated women. These cumulative benefits of low fertility, in effect, have speeded up the health improvement and socio-economic advancement of the states.

The Market in Higher Education: Concern for Equity and Quality

This paper brings to the fore problems associated with application of market logic to higher education, which is poised to play an important role in India's pursuit of inclusive growth. In a context where marketisation of higher education continues unabated and the government is keen to encourage private sector involvement, it is necessary to analyse their impact on the three stated objectives of expansion, inclusion and excellence. It is therefore crucial to understand how the market for higher education works and to critically examine the actual impact of the market on education in India. This paper argues that the market logic seriously compromises value and quality of higher education and this weakens our ability to build an inclusive society.

Gandhi's Hinduism and Savarkar's Hindutva

The present national crisis of violently conflicting communal identities represents a choice between the inclusiveness of Gandhi and the exclusions of Savarkar. Gandhi did not separate religion from politics. He brought a religious ethic to politics rather than political militancy into religious communities. Meanwhile, Savarkar's Hindutva ideology was narrow and exclusivist in its conflation of janma bhoomi (motherland) and punya bhoomi (holy land). In spite of its pretensions to be nationalist and modern, its militant chauvinism and authoritarian fundamentalism make Savarkar's Hindutva the antithesis of Gandhi's Hinduism. Hindutva defines India as Hindu and wants all Indians to be Hindus. In contrast, Gandhi's Hinduism gives space to all. This paper argues that the future of our multicultural, pluri-religious people can only be even bloodier with the preclusions of Savarkar's Hindutva. Only Gandhi's sarva-dharmasamabhava can possibly be an effective basis for a tolerance on which to premise a just inter-religious peace and harmony.

Fan Bhakti and Subaltern Sovereignty: Enthusiasm as a Political Factor

The problem of popular sovereignty has to be investigated beyond the confines of the republican institutions themselves, in fields where supplementary, virtual formations of sovereignty create community effects that compensate for their lack in the political structure proper. In this essay, the emergence of sovereignty formations around film stars is discussed with particular reference to Rajnikanth, in the context of the challenge posed to such formations by a newly triumphant commodity logic. Far from solving the problem of sovereignty, however, the corrosive power of the economic logic may be expected to create new political crises. An