ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

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Human Migration as Crisis of Europe

Europe achieved continental unifi cation through economic means, liberal constitutionalism and a currency union. It set goals of peace and security that encourage everyone to be liberal with unfettered freedom to access the market, and, on the other hand, allow the European Union to follow interventionist policies near abroad. The consequences of the union are to be found in Europe's restrictive and contradictory policies and programmes relating to immigration and refugee protection. The European migration crisis originates from this contradiction.

Conservation 'Wars'

Wildlife conservation is increasingly being portrayed as a "war," where conservation organisations take moral positions against poaching. Military methods are being heavily used to complement the already existing fences. The discourse advocating militarisation largely ignores the complex underlying historical, social, economic and political drivers of poaching. This article argues that militarisation in conservation is problematic not just from a philosophical position but also has significant practical implications on the ground upon which conservation projects operate.

Cow Slaughter Ban and the Welfare of Cattle

In recent years, state after state, under the rule of parties with diverse ideologies, has enacted legislation banning cow slaughter without serious consideration of the rationale and content of the laws or the practical problems of implementing them. Now we have aggressive attempts by vocal sections of the Bharatiya Janata Party and its affiliates to insist on extending the ban to cover production, sale and consumption of beef. This article looks at the issue of management of cattle and buffalo livestock in its entirety to shed light on what needs to be done and what shouldnot be done.

Capital and the New Xenophobia

Xenophobia, the fear or dislike of strangers, can be seen throughout the course of history in the form of communal riots, racist attacks, religious hatred and genocide. This article traces the changes in xenophobic thinking over the past three decades and examines the unexplored relationship of xenophobia with power and capitalism. It shows how changes in capitalism have altered the construction of the stranger, defi nes xenophobia in terms of structures of power, and argues for a re-conceptualisation of "civil" and new forms of xenophobia.

Silencing Caste, Sanitising Oppression

The Hindu notions of purity and pollution, inextricably linked with the caste system and the practice of untouchability, underlie the unsanitary practices in Indian society. These beliefs perpetuate the oppression of the "polluted castes," who are forced to undertake manual scavenging, unclog manholes and clean other people's filth. The availability of cheap Dalit labour to do these dehumanising jobs can be cited as one of the reasons why development of toilet facilities and a modern garbage and sewage management system have been neglected so far. As long as the Swachh Bharat Abhiyan attempts to delink the relationship between caste and sanitation, its lofty goal of cleaning India will remain unachievable.

Green Politics and the Indian Middle Class

Four pillars of green politics--social justice, grass-roots democracy, non-violence, and respect for diversity--have become more or less established principles of Indian political parties. The integration of the environmental dimension of green politics, consisting of the twin pillars of ecological wisdom and sustainability, is in an evolutionary phase. It is likely that increasingly this integration will reflect the views of the growing Indian middle class.

Feminism's Futures

What do feminists want? What visions of an ideal society have we conceptualised or dreamt of? What are the possibilities and limits of iterations of a feminist futurity? Even as we ask, however, we are brought up short by a more fundamental question: is such a teleological conception of any theory or social movement --however we define feminism--valid? Can we expect feminism to function with a single blueprint of an ideal political order or society "to come"?

Adivasis and the Anthropological Gaze

Through the display of material culture, museums invoke not only an imagined Adivasi past, but also a fossilised vision of their cultural present. While these museums tend to fulfil a pedagogical function through the display of material cultural objects, the implicit ideology behind these exhibits has not received the attention it deserves in India. Why do ethnographic museums choose to display predominantly select groups like the tribals? Why not also display upper-caste women and men and their lifeworld? Here is where politics of representation becomes inextricably intertwined with ethnographic displays in museums. This article explores the dynamics of the anthropological gaze and how it has contributed to the construction of the Adivasis as the exotic cultural other.

Repairing Complex Historical Injustice

Political theorists no doubt have to take the history of injustice, for example, untouchability, seriously. But, the beginning point of repair of historical injustice is the "here" and the "now," the democratic context that shapes collective lives and aspirations. Comprehension of how deep the roots of injustice are, is important. But, it is also important not to get trapped too much in the past and in the politics of recrimination and resentment that divides society irremediably, and prevents the consolidation of a consensus on the need to battle discrimination.

Is Another Emergency Likely?

Through a discussion of the build-up to the 1975 Emergency, what happened then and thereafter, and of the run-up to the 2014 elections and the first year of the Narendra Modi government, it is argued that in spite of all its deficiencies, India's democracy remains vibrant and will fight another attempt at authoritarian rule. But if government policies favour the rich and systematically undermine the interests of the common people and their democratic rights, one cannot rule out institutions of the state--the bureaucracy with some help from the judiciary--administering another Emergency in one form or another.

The Agrarian Question in the 21st Century

Drawing from the late Archie Mafeje's work and revolutionary spirit, this article revisits the "classical" agrarian question and responds to scholars who argue that the "agrarian question is dead"--indeed, those who feel that "we have been liberated from the constraints of agriculture, land and nature." Far from being dead, it is argued that the agrarian question remains real to people's politics in the 21st century and will remain so, especially in the global South where rural movements are finding alternative ways to wrestle monopoly-finance capital that continues to run amok.

Value, Visibility and the Demand for Justice

This article begins with issues of mourning and commemoration that arose in the context of the killings in the Emanuel African Methodist Episcopal Church in Charleston, South Carolina. It then relates them with questions regarding the worth and visibility of Black life. It then connects the political present with the political economy of race and the experience of state violence as these have structured urban America. The article ends by discussing issues posed by the social facts of caste atrocity and Black killings. It probes the relationship between dehumanising violence, political subjectivity and social justice.

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