ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846
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Migration, Caste and Marginalised Sections

Inequality in the Coverage of Basic Services in Urban India

Debolina Kundu ( is with the National Institute of Urban Affairs, New Delhi. Arpita Banerjee ( was a research associate with the SHRAMIC project at NIUA. She is currently working with Child in Need Institute, Kolkata.

A spatial overview on availability of urban basic services reveals disparities across urban India. Although various levels of government, including the parastatals, have strived to achieve sufficiency in provisioning of urban basic services, the coverage is far from satisfactory. The growing urban population creates deficiencies on the limited urban infrastructure. The condition is even more precarious for the new migrants who are poor and belong to socially marginalised groups. Using secondary data from the census and National Sample Survey Office, the distribution of basic amenities, including housing across states and size classes of urban centres, and the disparity in their distribution disaggregated by new migrants, marginalised groups and poverty levels are analysed.

This paper was written as part of the initiative to Strengthen and Harmonize Research and Action on Migration in the Indian Context (SHRAMIC), supported by Tata Trusts. SHRAMIC is anchored by Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research in collaboration with Centre for Policy Research, National Institute of Urban Affairs, IRIS Knowledge Foundation and the Migration Program Partners of Tata Trusts.

Updated On : 17th Jan, 2018


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