ISSN (Print) - 0012-9976 | ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

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‘Uncooperative’ Federalism

The 15th Finance Commission’s Terms of Reference need moderation, or else states will lose fiscal powers.

The Finance Commission is a constitutional body, an independent arbiter of resources between the union and the states. The core mandate of the commission is to divide union taxes in a way that enables the union and the states to perform their respective expenditure responsibilities defined in the 7th Schedule of the Constitution of India. Finance commissions in the past had performed this role admirably, and as an institution it earned tremendous respect among all stakeholders. One of the major strengths of Indias federal fiscal structure is an independent finance commission and the role it has played in strengthening federalism in this country. The commissions mandate is defined by its Terms of Reference (ToR). The 15th Finance Commissions (XV-FC) ToR have raised serious apprehensions among states. Apart from the controversy about the use of the 2011 population instead of 1971, which may result in smaller shares from the common pool of revenues for some states, the ToR are heavily loaded in favour of the union government. Unless a balanced view is taken by the XV-FC, these ToR have the potential to convert an already hierarchical unionstate fiscal relation into a relation of command and control. Since this is the first finance commission after the abolition of the Planning Commission, it also needs to take a holistic and balanced view of union and state resources, including the ones that flow outside the commission-recommended route.

The 14th Finance Commission (XIV-FC) was the first to take an aggregate view of resources and expenditures, and recommended a 42% tax devolution to cover both non-plan and plan revenue expenditures of states. At the same time, the XIV-FCs assessment of union finances from 201516 to 201920 provided sufficient fiscal resources for the union to perform functions listed in the union list and on national development priorities reflected through centrally sponsored schemes. However, in an unprecedented mandate, the XV-FC has been asked to review the impact of enhanced tax devolution recommended by the XIV-FC on the fiscal situation of the union government along with the continuing imperative of the national development programme, including New India2022. What is this New India2022? Can a government whose term ends by 2019 ask the commission to preserve central resources up to 2022 to make somebody else implement its vision? This New India initiative may also proliferate centrally sponsored schemes in social and economic sectors. Further, in a federal system, where state governments are responsible for spending around 58% of the combined expenditure of the union and states, can any national development agenda be set by cutting the flow of resources to states? The implication of the ToR is loud and clear. The union government is keen to reverse the process of greater fiscal autonomy and have greater control over state resources and functions.

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Published On : 20th Jan, 2024

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