ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846
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CRZ Policy, Sustainability and Livelihoods

Coastal Ecology and Fishing Community in Mumbai

A critique of the Coastal Regulation Zone rules studies their implementation, and violations in the Mumbai Metropolitan Region, which has experienced massive growth due to rapid economic transformation and urbanisation, resulting in degradation of and damage to sensitive coastal ecologies. Mumbai's artisanal fishers, especially the Kolis, are intensely subjected to survival and livelihood pressures. Sustaining the livelihoods of the Kolis and preserving coastal ecosystems is crucial for the city's sustainability. An evaluation of the state's role in implementing CRZ rules links the politics around CRZ to larger issues of livelihood and environmental sustainability. Field research in selected sites provides insights for small-scale fishery-based livelihoods and environmental sustainability.


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This is a revised version of the paper presented at the International Workshop on “Coastal River Zone Management, Regulations and Development,” organised by NEERI, MoEF, IIT Bombay, Government of Maharashtra, SOCLEEN, Indian Environmental Association and Indian Chemical Council, in January 2013. A version of the paper was also presented at the International Conference on “Development, Biodiversity and Climate Changes: Issues and Challenges at Chamba Climate Meet 2014,” Chamba, Himachal Pradesh, India. The authors gratefully acknowledge the anonymous reviewer for their detailed and helpful comments on the manuscript.


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