August 16, 1969 iii) Even though irrigation facilities are available as much to the large holdings as to the small ones, the proportion of operated area irrigated stands at a much lower level for the large holdings. iv) Though the 'investible surplus' is known to be more for a large holder, the application rates for chemical fertilisers are lower compared to the small holders. In view of the above considerations it seems that the odds are in favour of small holdings having higher output per acre as compared with large holdings. Non-availability of labour during the peak seasons is often referred to as the main factor affecting productivity in large holdings and perhaps this might explain the low intensity of use of land in large holdings. But this may not be the only reason. Another explanation may be the insufficient management on the part of large holders having numerous scattered parcels of land. The inability to effectively supervise distant parcels can result in a low intensity of use of land, low appli cation rates of fertiliser and a low co-efficient for irrigation. Parcellisation of holdings creates problems of management of labour far more for the large holders than it does for the small ones.