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A K Shiva Kumar

The Neglect of Health, Women and Justice

A report on the 2013 deliberation of the Kolkata Group at its 10th workshop which focused on healthcare, the status of women and social justice in India.

Inequities in Access to Health Services in India: Caste, Class and Region

Despite India's impressive economic performance after the introduction of economic reforms in the 1990s, progress in advancing the health status of Indians has been slow and uneven. Large inequities in health and access to health services continue to persist and have even widened across states, between rural and urban areas, and within communities. Three forms of inequities have dominated India's health sector. Historical inequities that have their roots in the policies and practices of British colonial India, many of which continued to be pursued well after independence; socio-economic inequities manifest in caste, class and gender differentials; and inequities in the availability, utilisation and affordability of health services. Of these, critical to ensuring health for all in the immediate future will be the effectiveness with which India addresses inequities in provisioning of health services and assurance of quality care.

Why Are Levels of Child Malnutrition Not Improving?

Results of the recently released third National Family Health Survey carried out in 2005-06 reveal that 46 per cent of India's children under three years are underweight. The NFHS-3 clearly shows limited progress in ensuring universal health services and care to children under three years of age (especially to newborns) and to mothers and women. Preliminary results confirm the continuing neglect of health, inadequate reach and efficacy of health and childcare services.

Budgeting for Health

The announcement of the National Rural Health Mission and the commitment in the recent budget to increase allocations for health are necessary steps in the right direction to correct India's shockingly poor health record. As national and state level strategies unfold over the coming months, a vigorous and informed public discussion is needed to create a national consensus for dramatically increasing investments in health with concurrent improvements in accountability and management of the healthcare system. Equally important is induction of a cadre of village-based health activists, all women, who will link communities to an upgraded public health system. These women should emerge as the missionaries dedicated to advancing health in India. Money, medicines and medical facilities will be meaningless without these missionaries. Finally, flexibility, innovation, focus, inclusion and openness must become essential features of the functioning of the National Rural Health Mission in its endeavour to provide good quality healthcare for all

UNDP s Gender-Related Development Index-A Computation for Indian States

The gender-related development index (GDI) proposed In UNDP's 1995 Human Development Report concentrates on the same variables as the human development index (HDI) but focuses on the inequality between men and women as well as on the average achievement of all people taken together. This paper computes the GDI for 16 Indian states for which data are available, and ranks them along with 130 countries of the world.

Health as Development-Implications for Research, Policy and Action

Implications for Research, Policy and Action A K Shiva Kumar Vanita Nayak Mukherjee Policy-makers need to recognise the primacy of good health as an essential component of human development in India. It is also important to view health more holistically, and understand how social, cultural, political, economic and other factors interact to constrain people's access and contribute to human deprivation. The inter-connections are often complex and policy interventions need to be more people-focused, broad-based and multi-pronged.

Financing Human Development

stitution in Bombay, which started 10 years later, R E Frykenberg has pointed out the same kind of enthusiasm in Madras. This was so not only because education opened up avenues to new types of jobs but also because many found it intellectually exciting.

UNDP s Human Development Index-A Computation for Indian States

A Computation for Indian States A K Shiva Kumar An attempt to construct the Human Envelopment Index (HDI) for 17 Indian states and to rank these states with the countries for which the HDI has been computed in the UNDP's Human Development Report 1990.