Through the instances of banditry in the Thur–Parkar region of the Thar Desert in the mid-19th century, this article explores the intersections between the categories of bandit, rebel and state. In the context of the phrases like “pacification” and “tranquilisation” of frontiers used as mentioned in the British reports, which suggest a state of constant turmoil, this study finds answers to the questions such as: (i) Could banditry in the arid Thar merely be understood through a criminal context, or was it located in a political context of power? (ii) Were the native rulers incapable of suppressing banditry or were their negotiations with bandits a part of historical system of exchange? (iii) Did banditry and the rebelliousness that it was inextricably located in, challenge the ideas about Rajputhood and warriorhood, as they had emerged in the Rajput courts? (iv) Did banditry constitute dissidence, as a number of bandits were outlaws?