ISSN (Online) - 2349-8846

Purna BanerjeeSubscribe to RSS - Purna Banerjee

Trade Liberalisation and Women’s Employment Intensity

Whether trade can be used as an instrument for generating greater employment opportunities for women is an important question for policymakers in developing countries. This paper analyses the role of various trade-related factors in determining female employment intensity in a panel of India’s manufacturing industries during 1998–2011. Import tariff rate is found to exert a negative effect on female employment intensity, supporting the hypothesis that firms, when exposed to international competition, tend to reduce costs by substituting male with female workers. Further, the relative demand for female workers increases to the extent that trade liberalisation leads to resource reallocation in favour of unskilled labour-intensive industries. By contrast, greater use of new technology biases the gender composition of workforce against females. Liberalisation has not led to large growth of female employment in India because the resource reallocation effect has not been strong enough to offset the negative technology effect.

'Why So Much Blood?'

To understand the nature of violence against women in Tripura, three cases from separate moments in history have been studied - the Raiabari, Gandachara, and Omanjoy Para incidents. History has left behind social tension, masculinisation lumpenisation of society and crimes against vulnerable groups. Among the last, women are primary victims and crimes against them are on the rise. Even the gender-neutral left government in Tripura has consistently enforced draconian measures. These forgotten and lost stories of violence need to be brought to wider attention.
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